How to format your references using the Chiropractic Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Totally stumped? Nature. 2004 Oct 7;431(7009):722.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allman ES, Rhodes JA. Evolution. Trees, fast and accurate. Science. 2010 Mar 12;327(5971):1334–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Urban FE, Cole JE, Overpeck JT. Influence of mean climate change on climate variability from a 155-year tropical Pacific coral record. Nature. 2000 Oct 26;407(6807):989–93.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McClure SM, Laibson DI, Loewenstein G, Cohen JD. Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science. 2004 Oct 15;306(5695):503–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath AE. Darwinism and the Divine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Chibbaro S. Reductionism, Emergence and Levels of Reality: The Importance of Being Borderline. Rondoni L, Vulpiani A, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XXI, 154 p. 13 illus., 4 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Alotaibi KD, Schoenau JJ. Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. In: Lichtfouse E, editor. Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 67–91. (Sustainable Agriculture Reviews).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Taub B. Tarantula Venom Helps Reveal How We Sense Pain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Operations: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Capacity Management Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Nov. Report No.: IMTEC-92-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson AJ. Textiles as Indicators of Hopewellian Culture Burial Practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Another Storm to Weather. New York Times. 2011 Feb 28;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic Journal of Australia
ISSN (print)1036-0913

Other styles