How to format your references using the Chiropractic Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gough D. Astronomy. How oblate is the Sun? Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1611–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brumfiel G, Marris E. Physics wins the US budget race. Nature. 2006 Feb 9;439(7077):644–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oka Y, Ye M, Zuker CS. Thirst driving and suppressing signals encoded by distinct neural populations in the brain. Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):349–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Colaprete A, Barnes JR, Haberle RM, Hollingsworth JL, Kieffer HH, Titus TN. Albedo of the south pole on Mars determined by topographic forcing of atmosphere dynamics. Nature. 2005 May 12;435(7039):184–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dods RF. Understanding Diabetes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Schäfer AO. MRI of Rectal Cancer: Clinical Atlas. Langer M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XII, 215 p. 500 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni A, Saleri F. Linear systems. In: Saleri F, editor. Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave: Second Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 123–66. (Texts in Computational Science and Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Davis J. Mysterious “X-Files” Sounds Heard 36km Above Earth’s Surface [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Budget: Department of the Air Force’s Information Technology Systems Obligations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: IMTEC-89-49FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poudyal Kharel A. Pyrolysis Studies of Copper and Copper Phosphate Mixtures on a Tungsten Surface [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe SH. Mandan Territory. New York Times. 1904 Sep 24;REVIEW OF BOOKSBR642.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic Journal of Australia
ISSN (print)1036-0913

Other styles