How to format your references using the Chiropractic Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Byatt AS. Fiction informed by science. Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):294–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vargas-Rodriguez O, Musier-Forsyth K. Structural biology: wobble puts RNA on target. Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):480–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guo D, Knight TE, McCusker JK. Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer. Science. 2011 Dec 23;334(6063):1684–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cheong SA, Tan TL, Chen C-C, Chang W-L, Liu Z, Chew LY, et al. Short-term forecasting of Taiwanese earthquakes using a universal model of fusion-fission processes. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 10;4:3624.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saunders A, Allen L. Credit Risk Management in and Out of the Financial Crisis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Scoffone CM, Hoznek A, Cracco CM, editors. Supine Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and ECIRS: The New Way of Interpreting PNL. Paris: Springer; 2014. XIII, 312 p. 201 illus., 95 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Ribatti D, Crivellato E. The Tumour Cell. In: Crivellato E, editor. Mast Cells and Tumours: from Biology to Clinic. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 61–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Andrew D. Sloths Aren’t Lazy – Their Slowness Is A Survival Skill [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Common Interests of Government and Schools of Business and Administration in Improving Management in Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Apr. Report No.: 094536.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal E. South Asian women’s attitudes toward help-seeking behaviors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nagourney A, Shear MD. Call From California: President Trump, Where Are You? New York Times. 2017 Jul 3;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic Journal of Australia
ISSN (print)1036-0913

Other styles