How to format your references using the Chiropractic Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramirez A. The making of a science evangelist. Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):726.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akbalik G, Schuman EM. Molecular biology. mRNA, live and unmasked. Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):375–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayden BY, Pearson JM, Platt ML. Fictive reward signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science. 2009 May 15;324(5929):948–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang K, Wang L, Hu Z, Cheng F, Chen J. Ultrasmall Li2S nanoparticles anchored in graphene nanosheets for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 25;4:6467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marston RC. Portfolio Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Cockburn J, Pawson ME, editors. Psychological Challenges in Obstetrics and Gynecology: The Clinical Management. London: Springer; 2007. XX, 332 p. 15 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Fry J, Galla T, Binner JM. Quantitative Decision-Making Rules for the Next Generation of Smarter Evacuations. In: Preston J, Binner JM, Branicki L, Galla T, Jones N, King J, et al., editors. City Evacuations: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 63–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Andrews R. Explore Chernobyl In 360° Vision 30 Years On From The Nuclear Disaster [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on the Labor Department’s Skill Training Improvement Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Jan. Report No.: HRD-79-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stoecker K. Transfer of Topic-Prominence in Chinese-English Interlanguage [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Candaele K. Postcards From the Edge: The Houston Nomads. New York Times. 1992 Aug 16;81.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic Journal of Australia
ISSN (print)1036-0913

Other styles