How to format your references using the Chiropractic Journal of Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic Journal of Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fenchel T. Microbiology. Biogeography for bacteria. Science. 2003 Aug 15;301(5635):925–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parvatiyar K, Harhaj EW. Cell signaling. Anchors away for ubiquitin chains. Science. 2010 Jun 4;328(5983):1244–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buhr ED, Yoo S-H, Takahashi JS. Temperature as a universal resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators. Science. 2010 Oct 15;330(6002):379–85.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun W, Bennett VC, Eggins SM, Kamenetsky VS, Arculus RJ. Enhanced mantle-to-crust rhenium transfer in undegassed arc magmas. Nature. 2003 Mar 20;422(6929):294–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaffney S, Francis C. Honesty Sells. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Husmeier D, Dybowski R, Roberts S, editors. Probabilistic Modeling in Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics. London: Springer; 2005. XX, 508 p. (Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing).
A chapter in an edited book
Mah KK, Cheng HM. Respiratory Recreation. In: Cheng HM, editor. Learning and Teaching Tools for Basic and Clinical Respiratory Physiology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–50. (SpringerBriefs in Physiology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic Journal of Australia.

Blog post
Andrew E. With Encyclical, Pope Francis Elevates Environmental Justice [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Facility Charges: Program Implementation and the Potential Effects of Proposed Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 May. Report No.: RCED-99-138.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton DS. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatán Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. On Adele’s Big Night, She Lauds Beyoncé. New York Times. 2017 Feb 12;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic Journal of Australia
ISSN (print)1036-0913

Other styles