How to format your references using the Chinese Chemical Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Chemical Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Todes, Global Darwin: Contempt for competition, Nature. 462 (2009) 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Kessler, B.T. Werner, Self-organization of sorted patterned ground, Science. 299 (2003) 380–383.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.A. Prokopenko, E.B. Karabanov, D.F. Williams, Age of long sediment cores from Lake Baikal, Nature. 415 (2002) 976.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Lierz, M. Reinschmidt, H. Müller, M. Wink, D. Neumann, A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes), Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.M. Joyce, D. Lipton, Lamentations Through the Centuries, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, 2013.
An edited book
G.R. Timilsina, D. Zilberman, eds., The Impacts of Biofuels on the Economy, Environment, and Poverty: A Global Perspective, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Saeki, Application of Antibacterial and Self-Cleaning Effects to Noncementitious Construction Materials, in: Y. Ohama, D. Van Gemert (Eds.), Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 194-TDP, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 17–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Chemical Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, Scales, Feathers, and Hair All Evolved From A Common Ancestor, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Comments on NASA’s Expenditure of Appropriated Funds for Parking Spaces, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1964.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.M. Albrinck, An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, The Kennedy Factor On the Roberts Court, New York Times. (2006) 42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Chemical Letters
AbbreviationChin. Chem. Lett.
ISSN (print)1001-8417
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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