How to format your references using the Chinese Chemical Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Chemical Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.C. Killian, Ultracold neutral plasmas, Science. 316 (2007) 705–708.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.J. Flannigan, K.S. Suslick, Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation, Nature. 434 (2005) 52–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Daw, J. Finkelstein, M. Helmer, Chemistry and energy, Nature. 488 (2012) 293.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.J. Kim, J. Tersoff, S. Kodambaka, M.C. Reuter, E.A. Stach, F.M. Ross, Kinetics of individual nucleation events observed in nanoscale vapor-liquid-solid growth, Science. 322 (2008) 1070–1073.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Anwar, J.J. Carroll, Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Properties Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
E. Giunchiglia, T. Walsh, eds., SAT 2005: Satisfiability Research in the Year 2005, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A.N. Gupta, P. Santhi Thilagam, Detection of XML Signature Wrapping Attack Using Node Counting, in: V. Vijayakumar, V. Neelanarayanan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC – 16’), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 57–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Chemical Letters.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Microbes: Our Tiny, Crucial Allies, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Exiting Program Improvement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.S. Peters, Bread and Washoku: Unveiling Japanese Identity Through the Necessity of Bread Baking, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, Joyful Puzzles of Home and Transition, New York Times. (2015) WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Chemical Letters
AbbreviationChin. Chem. Lett.
ISSN (print)1001-8417
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

Other styles