# How to format your references using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. O’Neill LAJ. Plant science. Innate immunity in plants goes to the PUB. Science. 2011;332:1386–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Armitage AE, Drakesmith H. Genetics. The battle for iron. Science. 2014;346:1299–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kaeberlein M, Rabinovitch PS, Martin GM. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine. Science. 2015;350:1191–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Leibfried D, Barrett MD, Schaetz T, Britton J, Chiaverini J, Itano WM, et al. Toward Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with multiparticle entangled states. Science. 2004;304:1476–8.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lindahl D. Trump University Commercial Real Estate 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Xu L. Visual Quality Assessment by Machine Learning. Lin W, Kuo C-CJ, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ahlswede R, Ahlswede A, Althöfer I, Deppe C, Tamm U. On $$\lambda$$ -Capacities and Information Stability. In: Ahlswede A, Althöfer I, Deppe C, Tamm U, editors. Transmitting and Gaining Data: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 299–321.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA Mission Brings Pluto Into Sharp Focus – but it’s Still Not a Planet [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/nasa-mission-brings-pluto-sharp-focus-it-s-still-not-planet/

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of Certain Activities of the Florida School Desegregating Consulting Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970 Aug. Report No.: B-164031(1).

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tofthagen CS. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2008.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. A West Side Stepchild Seeks Respect for Its Roots. New York Times. 2001 Feb 25;147.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].