How to format your references using the Chemical Research in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Research in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schimel, D. S. Climate. Drylands in the Earth System. Science 2010, 327 (5964), 418–419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, N. A.; Gurrola, H. Multiple Seismic Discontinuities near the Base of the Transition Zone in the Earth’s Mantle. Nature 2000, 405 (6786), 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gürerk, O.; Irlenbusch, B.; Rockenbach, B. The Competitive Advantage of Sanctioning Institutions. Science 2006, 312 (5770), 108–111.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Williams, A. H.; Valdez, G.; Moresi, V.; Qi, X.; McAnally, J.; Elliott, J. L.; Bassel-Duby, R.; Sanes, J. R.; Olson, E. N. MicroRNA-206 Delays ALS Progression and Promotes Regeneration of Neuromuscular Synapses in Mice. Science 2009, 326 (5959), 1549–1554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia, J. E. Dynamic Economic Decision Making; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Nondeterministic Mechanics; Elishakoff, I., Soize, C., Eds.; CISM Courses and Lectures; Springer: Vienna, 2012; Vol. 539.
A chapter in an edited book
Xin, X.; Liu, Y. Pendubot. In Control Design and Analysis for Underactuated Robotic Systems; Liu, Y., Ed.; Springer: London, 2014; pp 95–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Research in Toxicology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Scientists Discover New Phase Of Matter (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Prescribing: CMS Should Address Inconsistencies in Its Two Incentive Programs That Encourage the Use of Health Information Technology; GAO-11-159; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mier, L. M. Monitoring Electron Transfer Reactions Using Ultrafast UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J.; Kramer, A. E.; Reed, S. Gazprom Makes Concessions to E.U., Defusing an Antitrust Standoff. New York Times. March 13, 2017, p B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Research in Toxicology
AbbreviationChem. Res. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0893-228X
ISSN (online)1520-5010
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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