How to format your references using the Chemical Research in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Research in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. Chemists’ Salaries Turn South. Nature 2003, 422 (6933), 650.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pohrt, R.; Popov, V. L. Contact Stiffness of Randomly Rough Surfaces. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3293.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Y.; White, L.; Hui, D. Comment on “Impacts of Fine Root Turnover on Forest NPP and Soil C Sequestration Potential.” Science 2004, 304 (5678), 1745; author reply 1745.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Enquist, B. J.; Allen, A. P.; Brown, J. H.; Gillooly, J. F.; Kerkhoff, A. J.; Niklas, K. J.; Price, C. A.; West, G. B. Biological Scaling: Does the Exception Prove the Rule? Nature 2007, 445 (7127), E9-10; discussion E10-1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherniakov, M. An Introduction to Parametric Digital Filters and Oscillators; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2003.
An edited book
Conformal and Probabilistic Prediction with Applications: 5th International Symposium, COPA 2016, Madrid, Spain, April 20-22, 2016, Proceedings; Gammerman, A., Luo, Z., Vega, J., Vovk, V., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9653.
A chapter in an edited book
Dinman, J. D. Programmed –1 Ribosomal Frameshifting in SARS Coronavirus. In Molecular Biology of the SARS-Coronavirus; Lal, S. K., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp 63–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Research in Toxicology.

Blog post
Fang, J. Alligator Snapping Turtle Split into Three Separate Species (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: The Federal Enterprise Architecture and Agencies’ Enterprise Architectures Are Still Maturing; GAO-04-798T; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hollenbeck, J. L. The Challenge of U.S. West Coast Earthquake Response: Federal Urban Search and Rescue. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M. Rebuked Twice by Supreme Court, North Carolina Republicans Are Unfazed. New York Times. May 27, 2017, p A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Research in Toxicology
AbbreviationChem. Res. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0893-228X
ISSN (online)1520-5010
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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