How to format your references using the Chemical Research in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Research in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strong, M. Scientists and Societies. Community Outreach. Nature 2005, 434 (7031), 418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rehren, T.; Pusch, E. B. Late Bronze Age Glass Production at Qantir-Piramesses, Egypt. Science 2005, 308 (5729), 1756–1758.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beldade, P.; Koops, K.; Brakefield, P. M. Developmental Constraints versus Flexibility in Morphological Evolution. Nature 2002, 416 (6883), 844–847.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kurisu, G.; Zhang, H.; Smith, J. L.; Cramer, W. A. Structure of the Cytochrome B6f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Tuning the Cavity. Science 2003, 302 (5647), 1009–1014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barton, L. L.; Northup, D. E. Microbial Ecology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010; Proulx, T., Ed.; Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series; Springer: New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, M.; Heaton, S. Ko Ahau Te Awa Ko Te Awa Ko Ahau – I Am the River, and the River Is Me. In Experiencing the Outdoors: Enhancing Strategies for Wellbeing; Robertson, M., Lawrence, R., Heath, G., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2015; pp 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Research in Toxicology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Earthworms Are More Important Than Pandas (If You Want To Save The Planet). IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medicare Automated Systems: Weaknesses in Managing Information Technology Hinder Fight Against Fraud and Abuse; T-AIMD-97-176; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, P. M. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Justices Hear Arguments About Pacts On Pricing. New York Times. March 27, 2007, p C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Research in Toxicology
AbbreviationChem. Res. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0893-228X
ISSN (online)1520-5010
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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