How to format your references using the Chemical Research in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Research in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sage, L. Exoplanets. Nature 2014, 513 (7518), 327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Geballe, T. R.; Oka, T. Astronomy. A Key Molecular Ion in the Universe and in the Laboratory. Science 2006, 312 (5780), 1610–1612.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maeda, H.; Norum, D. V. L.; Gallagher, T. F. Microwave Manipulation of an Atomic Electron in a Classical Orbit. Science 2005, 307 (5716), 1757–1760.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cash, H. L.; Whitham, C. V.; Behrendt, C. L.; Hooper, L. V. Symbiotic Bacteria Direct Expression of an Intestinal Bactericidal Lectin. Science 2006, 313 (5790), 1126–1130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Makishima, A. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS); Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2016.
An edited book
Tavernier, F. High-Speed Optical Receivers with Integrated Photodiode in Nanoscale CMOS; Steyaert, M., Ed.; Analog Circuits and Signal Processing; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; Vol. 5.
A chapter in an edited book
Romano, C. Identity and Selfhood: Paul Ricœur’s Contribution and Its Continuations. In Hermeneutics and Phenomenology in Paul Ricoeur: Between Text and Phenomenon; Davidson, S., Vallée, M.-A., Eds.; Contributions to Hermeneutics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp 43–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Research in Toxicology.

Blog post
Taub, B. Smoking Weed Can Alter Your Kids’ DNA, Claim Australian Researchers (accessed 2018 -10 -30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Technology Readiness Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Evaluating the Readiness of Technology for Use in Acquisition Programs and Projects--Exposure Draft; GAO-16-410G; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wicks, C. F. The Self-Concept of Students in Remediation in a Rural Community College in Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. Art in Plain English. New York Times. March 27, 2016, p WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Research in Toxicology
AbbreviationChem. Res. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0893-228X
ISSN (online)1520-5010
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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