How to format your references using the Channels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Channels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker NJ. Tech.Sight. A technique whose time has come. Science 2002; 296:557–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Köhler H-R, Triebskorn R. Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: can we track effects to the population level and beyond? Science 2013; 341:759–65.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita YM, Jones DL, Fuller MT. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science 2003; 301:1547–50.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jones JA, Karlen SD, Fitzsimons J, Ardavan A, Benjamin SC, Briggs GAD, Morton JJL. Magnetic field sensing beyond the standard quantum limit using 10-spin NOON states. Science 2009; 324:1166–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang S, Xu J-X, Li X, Shen D. Iterative Learning Control for Multi-agent Systems Coordination. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Huerta J, Schade S, Granell C, editors. Connecting a Digital Europe Through Location and Place. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Chari SN, Diluoffo VV, Karger PA, Palmer ER, Rabin T, Rao JR, Rohotgi P, Scherzer H, Steiner M, Toll DC. Designing a Side Channel Resistant Random Number Generator. In: Gollmann D, Lanet J-L, Iguchi-Cartigny J, editors. Smart Card Research and Advanced Application: 9th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2010, Passau, Germany, April 14-16, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. page 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Channels.

Blog post
Fang J. Pygmy tyrannosaur stalked the ancient Arctic [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Programs at the U.S. Army School of the Americas in Panama. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle LL. Relationship between managerial responsiveness, managerial approachability, and prosocial voice among acute-care registered nurses. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B, Green J. What’s A Show Without Its Star? New York Times2017; :C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChannels
AbbreviationChannels (Austin)
ISSN (print)1933-6950
ISSN (online)1933-6969

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