How to format your references using the Channels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Channels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Big or small neuroscience? Nature 2001; 414:3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathieu RD, Geller AM. A binary star fraction of 76 per cent and unusual orbit parameters for the blue stragglers of NGC 188. Nature 2009; 462:1032–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pryke SR, Rollins LA, Griffith SC. Females use multiple mating and genetically loaded sperm competition to target compatible genes. Science 2010; 329:964–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zilberman D, Coleman-Derr D, Ballinger T, Henikoff S. Histone H2A.Z and DNA methylation are mutually antagonistic chromatin marks. Nature 2008; 456:125–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz R. Rethinking Pragmatism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Millsap RE, Bolt DM, van der Ark LA, Wang W-C, editors. Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nin N, Izquierdo-García JL, Lorente JA. The Metabolomic Approach to the Diagnosis of Critical Illness. In: Vincent J-L, editor. Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. page 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Channels.

Blog post
Andrew D. 5 Science Facts Jurrassic World Totally Ignored [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies. Enclosure B: Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Minick V. Educators’ Beliefs About and Approaches to the Evaluation of Student Writing. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson J. University Presses. New York Times2017; :BR35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChannels
AbbreviationChannels (Austin)
ISSN (print)1933-6950
ISSN (online)1933-6969

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