How to format your references using the Channels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Channels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFiggans G. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions. Nature 2005; 433:E13; discussion E13-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giazotto F, Martínez-Pérez MJ. The Josephson heat interferometer. Nature 2012; 492:401–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Semenov V, Dyadechkin S, Punsly B. Simulations of jets driven by black hole rotation. Science 2004; 305:978–80.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee J-B, Hite RK, Hamdan SM, Xie XS, Richardson CC, van Oijen AM. DNA primase acts as a molecular brake in DNA replication. Nature 2006; 439:621–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French M, Szepesvári C, Rogers E. Performance of Nonlinear Approximate Adaptive Controllers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Vaamonde D, du Plessis SS, Agarwal A, editors. Exercise and Human Reproduction: Induced Fertility Disorders and Possible Therapies. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujii M, Jono R, Yamashita K. Physical Model for Interfacial Carrier Dynamics. In: Sugiyama M, Fujii K, Nakamura S, editors. Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion: Theory and Application. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. page 67–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Channels.

Blog post
Davis J. Native Alaskans May Have Been Trading Metals With Asia Long Before European Contact [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shafran RF. Leading Organizational Change: A Phenomenological Study of the Nonlinear Strategies Used by Female Leaders in Global Companies. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B, Morris W. August Wilson: Then. Now. Forever? New York Times2017; :AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChannels
AbbreviationChannels (Austin)
ISSN (print)1933-6950
ISSN (online)1933-6969

Other styles