How to format your references using the Cephalalgia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cephalalgia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart I I. Mathematics. The Lorenz attractor exists. Nature 2000; 406: 948–949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braine J, Herpin F. Molecular hydrogen beyond the optical edge of an isolated spiral galaxy. Nature 2004; 432: 369–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fedorov AV, Brierley CM, Emanuel K. Tropical cyclones and permanent El Niño in the early Pliocene epoch. Nature 2010; 463: 1066–1070.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stracker TH, Morales M, Couto SS, et al. The carboxy terminus of NBS1 is required for induction of apoptosis by the MRE11 complex. Nature 2007; 447: 218–221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooney N. How to Be Great at Doing Good. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Schiavon F, Guglielmi G, Rotondo A (eds). La comunicazione radiologica nella società del benessere. Milano: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Casarin R, Tronzano M, Sartore D. Sovereign Risk and Contagion Effects in the Eurozone: A Bayesian Stochastic Correlation Model. In: Morlini I, Minerva T, Vichi M (eds) Advances in Statistical Models for Data Analysis. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cephalalgia.

Blog post
Luntz S. Years Of fMRI Research May Be Wrong. IFLScience, (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Transit: Transit Agencies’ Use of Contracting to Provide Service. GAO-13-782, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 26 September 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clavio G. Uses and gratifications of Internet collegiate sport message board users. Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. With All-Out Effort, Penguins’ Fleury Is Enjoying Postseason Success. New York Times, 29 April 2017, p. D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCephalalgia
ISSN (print)0333-1024
ISSN (online)1468-2982
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles