How to format your references using the Cephalalgia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cephalalgia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vivien L. Computer technology: Silicon chips lighten up. Nature 2015; 528: 483–484.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot E, Jacobs SS. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines. Science 2002; 296: 2020–2023.
A journal article with 3 authors
Warner DA, Uller T, Shine R. Transgenerational sex determination: the embryonic environment experienced by a male affects offspring sex ratio. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2709.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Doyle M, Fookes M, Ivens A, et al. An H-NS-like stealth protein aids horizontal DNA transmission in bacteria. Science 2007; 315: 251–252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond B. Legal Aspects of Mental Capacity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Sabu A, Augustine A (eds). Prospects in Bioscience: Addressing the Issues. New Delhi: Springer India, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Deng Y. The Expansion of Kant’s Republicanism with Active Citizenship. In: Cudd AE, Lee W-C (eds) Citizenship and Immigration - Borders, Migration and Political Membership in a Global Age. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cephalalgia.

Blog post
Luntz S. New Trilobite Species Explains Longstanding Footprint Mystery. IFLScience, (2017, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Food Assistance: Information on Meal Costs in the National School Lunch Program. RCED-94-32BR, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1 December 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Victoria FC. One on One. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Reservoir’s Sunken Fountain Is Rising From the Deep. New York Times, 29 June 2003, p. 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCephalalgia
ISSN (print)0333-1024
ISSN (online)1468-2982
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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