How to format your references using the Cephalalgia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cephalalgia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander MH. Chemistry. Chemical kinetics under test. Science 2011; 331: 411–412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Losos JB, Schluter D. Analysis of an evolutionary species-area relationship. Nature 2000; 408: 847–850.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park S-J, Taton TA, Mirkin CA. Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes. Science 2002; 295: 1503–1506.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sullivan NJ, Sanchez A, Rollin PE, et al. Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates. Nature 2000; 408: 605–609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williams DL. Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
An edited book
Backes M, Ning P (eds). Computer Security – ESORICS 2009: 14th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Saint-Malo, France, September 21-23, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Knoth S. The Art of Evaluating Monitoring Schemes — How to Measure the Performance of Control Charts? In: Lenz H-J, Wilrich P-T (eds) Frontiers in Statistical Quality Control 8. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2006, pp. 74–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cephalalgia.

Blog post
Davis J. The Majority Of Europeans Say They Are Already Feeling The Impact Of Climate Change. IFLScience, (2017, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Request for Radio Frequencies. RCED-84-158, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 23 August 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venegas Carro GI. The Slow Movements of Anton Bruckner’s Symphonies: Dialogical Perspectives. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Arizona, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Story L. A Stealthy Subsidy Aiding Big Businesses Is Growing. New York Times, 4 March 2013, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCephalalgia
ISSN (print)0333-1024
ISSN (online)1468-2982
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles