How to format your references using the Cephalalgia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cephalalgia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bollen M. Cell cycle: It takes three to find the exit. Nature 2015; 517: 29–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruokolainen K, Tuomisto H. Beta-diversity in tropical forests. Science 2002; 297: 1439; discussion 1439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu K, Cao P, Heath JR. Graphene visualizes the first water adlayers on mica at ambient conditions. Science 2010; 329: 1188–1191.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hanikenne M, Talke IN, Haydon MJ, et al. Evolution of metal hyperaccumulation required cis-regulatory changes and triplication of HMA4. Nature 2008; 453: 391–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staudt G. Experimentalphysik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2001.
An edited book
Ascher W. Development Strategies and Inter-Group Violence: Insights on Conflict-Sensitive Development. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Weyh A. What Characterizes Successful Start-Up Cohorts? In: Fritsch M, Schmude J (eds) Entrepreneurship in the Region. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006, pp. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cephalalgia.

Blog post
Davis J. Satellite Imagery Combined With AI Used To Identify People Living In Most Poverty. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Income Security Issue Area: Active Assignments. AA-97-11(3), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1 September 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson-Scott D. Policy analysis of the Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman JL. A Funky Place to Land in Hollywood. New York Times, 18 November 2016, p. TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCephalalgia
ISSN (print)0333-1024
ISSN (online)1468-2982
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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