How to format your references using the Cephalalgia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cephalalgia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hochstrasser M. Molecular biology. New proteases in a ubiquitin stew. Science 2002; 298: 549–552.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kasparian J, Wolf J-P. Applied physics. Laser beams take a curve. Science 2009; 324: 194–195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson WA, Bjørnstad ON, Yamanaka T. Recurrent insect outbreaks caused by temperature-driven changes in system stability. Science 2013; 341: 796–799.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roach PJ, Woodward WH, Castleman AW Jr, et al. Complementary active sites cause size-selective reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with water. Science 2009; 323: 492–495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sestina JE. Planning a Successful Future. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
Luisi PL, Stano P (eds). The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Tschakert P, Laliberte N. Contaminated Identities: Understanding Human and Environmental Risks and Livelihood Options Among Small-Scale Gold Miners in Ghana. In: Luginaah IN, Yanful EK (eds) Environment and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Managing an Emerging Crisis: Selected Papers from ERTEP 2007, July 17-19 2007, Ghana, Africa. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009, pp. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cephalalgia.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch The ISS Fly Over Spectacular Aurora. IFLScience, (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Month In Review, April 1999: Reports, Testimony, Correspondence, and Other Publications. OPA-99-7, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1 May 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas-Whitman D. Treading water: Civic engagement efforts in a time of budget crisis at a public university. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Parole Unlikely for Russian Oil Executive Jailed in Siberia. New York Times, 26 October 2007, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCephalalgia
ISSN (print)0333-1024
ISSN (online)1468-2982
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles