How to format your references using the Cellular and Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cellular and Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barry CE. Tuberculosis: Drug discovery goes au naturel. Nature 2014; 506: 436–437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sosnick TR, Hinshaw JR. Biochemistry. How proteins fold. Science 2011; 334: 464–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catalli K, Shim S-H, Prakapenka V. Thickness and Clapeyron slope of the post-perovskite boundary. Nature 2009; 462: 782–785.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hopkins WD, Keebaugh AC, Reamer LA, Schaeffer J, Schapiro SJ, Young LJ. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Sci Rep 2014; 4: 3774.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salam A. Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Maio M de, Rzany B (eds.). Botulinum Toxin in Aesthetic Medicine. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazzan O, Lapidot T, Ragonis N. Problem-Solving Strategies. In: Lapidot T, Ragonis N (eds). Guide to Teaching Computer Science: An Activity-Based Approach. Springer: London, 2014, pp 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cellular and Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce H. Check Out The Amazing Behavior Of These Fish As They Try To Guard Against Predators. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Better Information Needed for Oversight and Evaluation of Selected Elementary and Secondary Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullett DL. Lived Experience of Suffering through the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. When an Executive Acts Like a Spoiled Brat. New York Times. 2017; : BU14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCellular and Molecular Immunology
AbbreviationCell. Mol. Immunol.
ISSN (online)2042-0226
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases

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