How to format your references using the Canada Journal of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canada Journal of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. BROOKHAVEN LAB: Forbes Loses in Fallout From Reactor Fight. Science. 2000 Sep 22;289(5487):2021b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiu C, Weliky M. Neuroscience. Synaptic modification by vision. Science. 2003 Jun 20;300(5627):1890–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rohde DLT, Olson S, Chang JT. Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans. Nature. 2004 Sep 30;431(7008):562–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schirmer EC, Florens L, Guan T, Yates JR 3rd, Gerace L. Nuclear membrane proteins with potential disease links found by subtractive proteomics. Science. 2003 Sep 5;301(5638):1380–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benitez M, Davidson J, Flaxman L. Small Schools, Big Ideas. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Dawande MW. Throughput Optimization in Robotic Cells. Geismar HN, Sethi SP, Sriskandarajah C, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. XVI, 420 p. (International Series in Operations Research & Management Science; vol. 101).
A chapter in an edited book
Reichmuth C. Psychophysical Studies of Auditory Masking in Marine Mammals: Key Concepts and New Directions. In: Popper AN, Hawkins A, editors. The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 23–7. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canada Journal of Public Health.

Blog post
Andrew D. What Do We Know About Marijuana’s Medical Benefits? Two Experts Explain The Evidence [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Additional Information on Implementation of Transportation Regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Nov. Report No.: GAO-07-194R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baggio BG. Integrating social software into blended -learning courses: A Delphi study of instructional -design processes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. Men Need Help. Is Hillary Clinton the Answer? New York Times. 2016 Oct 21;SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanada Journal of Public Health
AbbreviationCan. J. Public Health
ISSN (print)0008-4263
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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