How to format your references using the Canada Journal of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canada Journal of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Luo ZX. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. Nature. 2007 Dec 13;450(7172):1011–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jansen VAA, Stumpf MPH. Ecology. Making sense of evolution in an uncertain world. Science. 2005 Sep 23;309(5743):2005–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rohde DLT, Olson S, Chang JT. Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans. Nature. 2004 Sep 30;431(7008):562–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu S, Alapaty K, Mathur R, Pleim J, Zhang Y, Nolte C, et al. Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 6;4:6929.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Habgood J. The Game Maker’s Apprentice: Game Development for Beginners. Overmars M, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2006. XXI, 311 p. 151 illus., 150 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Crivellaro A, Schweingruber FH. Identification keys. In: Schweingruber FH, editor. Atlas of Wood, Bark and Pith Anatomy of Eastern Mediterranean Trees and Shrubs: with a Special Focus on Cyprus. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canada Journal of Public Health.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch The Fight Between A Mongoose And A Cobra [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Landsat Policy Issues Still Unresolved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Apr. Report No.: PSAD-78-58.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koblick DC. Parallel high-precision orbit propagation using the modified Picard-Chebyshev method [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tavernise S, Kovaleski SF, Turkewitz J. ‘I Wish I Could Tell You He Was a Miserable Bastard.’ New York Times. 2017 Oct 7;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanada Journal of Public Health
AbbreviationCan. J. Public Health
ISSN (print)0008-4263
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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