How to format your references using the Canada Journal of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canada Journal of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuntz M. Carbon cycle: a dent in carbon’s gold standard. Nature. 2011 Sep 28;477(7366):547–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishimura M, Somerville S. Plant biology. Resisting attack. Science. 2002 Mar 15;295(5562):2032–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldi C, Cho S, Ellis RE. Mutations in two independent pathways are sufficient to create hermaphroditic nematodes. Science. 2009 Nov 13;326(5955):1002–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Han R, Shimamoto T, Hirose T, Ree JH, Ando JI. Ultralow friction of carbonate faults caused by thermal decomposition. Science. 2007 May 11;316(5826):878–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morri G, Mazza A. Property Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Bennetzen JL, Hake S, editors. Handbook of Maize: Genetics and Genomics. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. XII, 800 p. 94 illus., 46 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Levine N. A Motor Vehicle Safety Planning Support System: The Houston Experience. In: Geertman S, Stillwell J, editors. Planning Support Systems Best Practice and New Methods. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 93–111. (Sui DZ, Tietze W, Claval P, Gradus Y, Park SO, van der Wusten H, editors. The GeoJournal Library).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canada Journal of Public Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Arctic Ice Thinning At Worrisome Rate. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Related to Determining How Best to Finance FAA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Feb. Report No.: T-RCED-97-59.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curry M. Students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship at a historically black university in central Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. New Focus on the Effects of Life Tenure. New York Times. 2007 Sep 10;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanada Journal of Public Health
AbbreviationCan. J. Public Health
ISSN (print)0008-4263
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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