How to format your references using the Case Reports in Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eliezer D. Biochemistry. Visualizing amyloid assembly. Science. 2012 Apr;336(6079):308–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armstrong FA, Fontecilla-Camps JC. Biochemistry. A natural choice for activating hydrogen. Science. 2008 Jul;321(5888):498–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rigol M, Dunjko V, Olshanii M. Thermalization and its mechanism for generic isolated quantum systems. Nature. 2008 Apr;452(7189):854–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mann ME, Woodruff JD, Donnelly JP, Zhang Z. Atlantic hurricanes and climate over the past 1,500 years. Nature. 2009 Aug;460(7257):880–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malamed C. Visual Design Solutions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Merzouki R. Intelligent Mechatronic Systems: Modeling, Control and Diagnosis. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao J-M, Wang W-S, Liu X, Chen Y-F. Big Data Benchmark - Big DS. In: Rabl T, Raghunath N, Poess M, Bhandarkar M, Jacobsen H-A, Baru C, editors. Advancing Big Data Benchmarks: Proceedings of the 2013 Workshop Series on Big Data Benchmarking,, Xi’an, China, July16-17, 2013 and, San José, CA, USA, October 9-10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014; pp 49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Dermatology.

Blog post
Hale T. Watch A Bald Eagle Snatch A Baby Osprey From Its Nest [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Abatement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Canetta SE. Type III Neuregulin1 Signaling in Peripheral Sensory Neurons Affects Thermal Pain Sensation and Hyperalgesia. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. A Chance to Be Reborn After Years Behind Bars. New York Times. 2016 Oct;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Dermatology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Dermatol.
ISSN (online)1662-6567

Other styles