How to format your references using the Case Reports in Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richardson DJ. Applied physics. Filling the light pipe. Science. 2010 Oct;330(6002):327–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goo L, Pierson TC. Dengue virus: Bumps in the road to therapeutic antibodies. Nature. 2015 Aug;524(7565):295–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prospero JM, Bullard JE, Hodgkins R. High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms. Science. 2012 Mar;335(6072):1078–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gaskell G, Einsiedel E, Hallman W, Priest SH, Jackson J, Olsthoorn J. Communication. Social values and the governance of science. Science. 2005 Dec;310(5756):1908–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer H. Angewandte Baudynamik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Liu M. Nonlinear Analysis and Prediction of Time Series in Multiphase Reactors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Homburg C, Schäfer H, Schneider J. Sales Channels and Sales Partners: Designing the Route to the Customer. In: Schäfer H, Schneider J, editors. Sales Excellence: Systematic Sales Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012; pp 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Nikon’s 2013 Small World Photomicrography Winners Have Been Announced [Internet]. IFLScience. 2013 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:’s-2013-small-world-photomicrography-winners-have-been-announced/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Effects on Users of Commercializing Landsat and the Weather Satellites. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prendergast CA. Nontraditional online students perceptions on student success conditions. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. For Golf’s No. 1 Pitchman, Silence Doesn’t Sell. New York Times. 2009 Nov;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Dermatology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Dermatol.
ISSN (online)1662-6567

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