How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Owens B. Cell physiology: The changing colour of fat. Nature. 2014;508:S52-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Taylor JRA, Kier WM. Biomechanics: a pneumo-hydrostatic skeleton in land crabs. Nature. 2006;440:1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mietto P, Avanzini M, Rolandi G. Palaeontology: Human footprints in Pleistocene volcanic ash. Nature. 2003;422:133.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ordonio RL, Ito Y, Hatakeyama A, Ohmae-Shinohara K, Kasuga S, Tokunaga T, et al. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kamso N, Ng TM. Investing in Islamic Funds. Singapore Pte. Ltd.: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
1. Wilcox P. Pulmonary Function Tests in Clinical Practice. Road J, Altalag A, editors. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bayazitoglu Y, Kakaç S. Flow Regimes in Microchannel Single-Phase Gaseous Fluid Flow. In: Kakaç S, Vasiliev LL, Bayazitoğlu Y, Yener Y, editors. Microscale Heat Transfer Fundamentals and Applications: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Microscale Heat Transfer — Fundamentals and Applications in Biological and Microelectromechanical Systems Cesme-Izmir, Turkey 18–30 July 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Ultrasound.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. When It Comes To Mental Health, Parents Shouldn’t Worry Who Their Children Are Friends With [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Summer Youth Jobs Program: Congressional Action Has Increased Emphasis on Remedial Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: HRD-88-118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Venter WM. People and Pride: A Qualitative Study of Place Attachment and Professional Placemakers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wasik JF. Death Is Inevitable. Financial Turmoil Afterward Isn’t. New York Times. 2017 Jan 13;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Ultrasound
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Ultrasound
ISSN (online)1476-7120
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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