How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Finlay BB. Microbiology. Cracking Listeria’s password. Science. 2001;292:1665–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cheung GYC, Otto M. Microbiology: Diverted on the way to memory. Nature. 2015;517:28–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lestas I, Vinnicombe G, Paulsson J. Fundamental limits on the suppression of molecular fluctuations. Nature. 2010;467:174–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Suwa G, Kono RT, Katoh S, Asfaw B, Beyene Y. A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in Ethiopia. Nature. 2007;448:921–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jarman KH. Beyond Basic Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Huang D-S, Han K, Gromiha M, editors. Intelligent Computing in Bioinformatics: 10th International Conference, ICIC 2014, Taiyuan, China, August 3-6, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Torras C. Natural Inspiration for Artificial Adaptivity: Some Neurocomputing Experiences in Robotics. In: Calude CS, Dinneen MJ, Păun G, Pérez-Jímenez MJ, Rozenberg G, editors. Unconventional Computation: 4th International Conference, UC 2005, Sevilla, Spain, October 3 – 7, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 32–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Ultrasound.

Blog post
1. Davis J. For Male Chimpanzees, It Pays To Have Friends In High Places [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Office of Education’s Basic Grant Program Can Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Sep. Report No.: HRD-77-91.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Salam S. Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Anderson J. Rescuing a Film Rarity, Frame by Frame. New York Times. 2016 Sep 25;AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Ultrasound
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Ultrasound
ISSN (online)1476-7120
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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