How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brash DE. Cancer. Preprocancer. Science. 2015;348:867–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Etiope G, Ciccioli P. Earth’s degassing: a missing ethane and propane source. Science. 2009;323:478.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Meng F, McGrath KP, Hoveyda AH. Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis. Nature. 2014;513:367–74.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Koshnick NC, Bluhm H, Huber ME, Moler KA. Fluctuation superconductivity in mesoscopic aluminum rings. Science. 2007;318:1440–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ahmad A. Wireless and Mobile Data Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Feng H, Mao Y, Zhang JH, editors. Early Brain Injury or Cerebral Vasospasm: Volume 2: Clinical Management. Vienna: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pettit C, Nelson A, Cartwright W. Using On-Line Geographical Visualisation Tools to Improve Land Use Decision-Making with a Bottom-Up Community Participatory Approach. In: Leeuwen JPV, Timmermans HJP, editors. Recent Advances in Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Ultrasound.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Women Are Far More Anxious Than Men – Here’s The Science [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education Research: Preliminary Observations on the Institute of Education Sciences’ Research and Evaluation Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Sep. Report No.: GAO-13-852T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Soheili A. A transannular Cope approach toward the core structure of isocyclocitrinol [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. ‘Traffic Calming’ Theory Can Provoke a Storm. New York Times. 2008 Jul 20;LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Ultrasound
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Ultrasound
ISSN (online)1476-7120
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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