How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Diabetology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Diabetology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brook RJ. W. David Kingery (1926-2000). Nature. 2000;406:582.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zucker AA, Light D. Laptop programs for students. Science. 2009;323:82–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Paniello RC, Day JMD, Moynier F. Zinc isotopic evidence for the origin of the Moon. Nature. 2012;490:376–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kers JA, Wach MJ, Krasnoff SB, Widom J, Cameron KD, Bukhalid RA, et al. Nitration of a peptide phytotoxin by bacterial nitric oxide synthase. Nature. 2004;429:79–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Scott DW. Color Atlas of Farm Animal Dermatology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Wang F, Miyajima M, Li T, Shan W, Fathani TF, editors. Progress of Geo-Disaster Mitigation Technology in Asia. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kitoogo FE, Bitwayiki C. e-Justice Implementation at a National Scale: The Ugandan Case. In: Villafiorita A, Saint-Paul R, Zorer A, editors. E-Infrastructures and E-Services on Developing Countries: First International ICST Conference, AFRICOM 2009, Maputo, Mozambique, December 3-4, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 40–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Diabetology.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Test Can Calculate A Person’s Chances Of Waking From A Coma. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Documents in Languages Other Than English Published and Distributed in Calendar Years 1995-1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jun. Report No.: GGD-98-99R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bustos I. Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K, Pilon M. Technology Firm From India Will Be New York Marathon Title Sponsor. New York Times. 2013 Oct 3;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Diabetology
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Diabetol.
ISSN (online)1475-2840
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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