How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Diabetology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Diabetology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Menzel D. Surface science. Water on a metal surface. Science. 2002;295:58–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Misra A, Ching WY. Theoretical nonlinear response of complex single crystal under multi-axial tensile loading. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1488.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Joseph AC, Joseph SE, Chen G. Cross-border portfolio investment networks and indicators for financial crises. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3991.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xu W, Bony BA, Kim CR, Baeck JS, Chang Y, Bae JE, et al. Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles as dual imaging agent in biomedicine. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kubicek CP. Fungi and Lignocellulosic Biomass. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Carlson DL, Albright J, editors. Composing a Care of the Self: A Critical History of Writing Assessment in Secondary English Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhang JY, Ohsaki M. Stability. In: Ohsaki M, editor. Tensegrity Structures: Form, Stability, and Symmetry. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 97–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Diabetology.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Men’s Magazines Are Normalizing Sexist Bigotry, Study Finds. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Protest of NASA RFP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 May. Report No.: B-177184.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ramirez C. Generation-Y leadership: A qualitative phenomenological study of virtual socialization relationships [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Linkin Park Album Is No. 1, Surprisingly. New York Times. 2017 May 29;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Diabetology
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Diabetol.
ISSN (online)1475-2840
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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