How to format your references using the Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith FA. Evolution. Some like it hot. Science. 2012 Feb;335(6071):924–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pandey A, Mann M. Proteomics to study genes and genomes. Nature. 2000 Jun;405(6788):837–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Orlove BS, Chiang JC, Cane MA. Forecasting Andean rainfall and crop yield from the influence of El Nino on Pleiades visibility. Nature. 2000 Jan;403(6765):68–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zheng S, Carpenter JS, McCabe RJ, Beyerlein IJ, Mara NA. Engineering interface structures and thermal stabilities via SPD processing in bulk nanostructured metals. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb;4:4226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balani K, Verma V, Agarwal A, Narayan R. Biosurfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Roesle ML. Boiling Heat Transfer in Dilute Emulsions. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Batura O, Evas T. Information Society Goes East: ICT Policy in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Cooperation Framework. In: Kerikmäe T, Chochia A, editors. Political and Legal Perspectives of the EU Eastern Partnership Policy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 39–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Finally See The Faint Swirling Halo Surrounding An Active Galaxy [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Mar


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Program Status and Comments on IRS’ Portion of President’s Request For Fiscal Year 1993 Supplemental Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klochko K. An empirical re-evaluation of the boron isotope/pH proxy in marine carbonates. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A Seminary’s Proud Tower Brings Unease to Neighbors. New York Times. 2001 May;145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiology
ISSN (print)0008-6312
ISSN (online)1421-9751
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles