How to format your references using the Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schooler JW: Metascience could rescue the “replication crisis.” Nature 2014;515:9.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney JO, O’Connell MJ: Evolutionary developmental biology: Ghost locus appears. Nature 2014;514:570–571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werner SL, Barken D, Hoffmann A: Stimulus specificity of gene expression programs determined by temporal control of IKK activity. Science 2005;309:1857–1861.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shi N, Ye S, Alam A, Chen L, Jiang Y: Atomic structure of a Na+- and K+-conducting channel. Nature 2006;440:570–574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux É: Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Lee DR (ed): Public Choice, Past and Present: The Legacy of James M. Buchanan and Gordon Tullock. New York, NY, Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Nogueira S, Ruichek Y, Gechter F, Koukam A, Charpillet F: An Artificial-Vision Based Environment Perception System; in Abut H, Hansen JHL, Takeda K (eds): Advances for In-Vehicle and Mobile Systems: Challenges for International Standards. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2007, pp 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiology.

Blog post
Andrew E: Designer Microbes Might Be Coming To A Gut Near You. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: New Navajo Construction Activities on the Navajo and Hopi Joint-Use Area. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfe CJ: Dimensions of Purchasing Social Responsibility in Sustainable Supply Chain Organizations 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C: County Gears Up for Its First Empire Games. New York Times 2007;WE12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiology
ISSN (print)0008-6312
ISSN (online)1421-9751
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles