# How to format your references using the Carcinogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carcinogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Barouch, D.H. (2008) Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature, 455, 613–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Cruz, G. et al. (2013) Neural coding of binary mixtures in a structurally related odorant pair. Sci. Rep., 3, 1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kelbert, A. et al. (2009) Global electromagnetic induction constraints on transition-zone water content variations. Nature, 460, 1003–1006.
A journal article with 2 or more authors
1.
Niittylä, T. et al. (2004) A previously unknown maltose transporter essential for starch degradation in leaves. Science, 303, 87–89.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bliesner, D.M. (2006) Establishing a CGMP Laboratory Audit System, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1.
Quinn, K.G., Ed. (2012) The Economics of the National Football League: The State of the Art, 2Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hu, J. et al. (2015) Probability-Guaranteed $$H_\infty$$ H ∞ Finite-Horizon Filtering with Sensor Saturations. In Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Network-Induced Phenomena: Recursive Filtering and Sliding-Mode Design ((Wang, Z. et al., eds), pp. 101–118, Springer International Publishing.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carcinogenesis.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, D. 20-Oct-(2016) , What Is The Dark Web And How Does It Work? , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/what-is-the-dark-web-and-how-does-it-work/. [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1977) Navigation Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hernandez, L. (2009) , A culturally sensitive mentorship program for foster youth: A grant proposal. , Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey, G. 29-Apr-(2010) , Family and Friendship In Stately Victor’s Name. , New York Times, B15.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).