How to format your references using the Carcinogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carcinogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waychunas, G.A. (2014) Interfacial chemistry. Disrupting dissolving ions at surfaces with fluid flow. Science, 344, 1094–1095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, X. et al. (2004) A new troodontid dinosaur from China with avian-like sleeping posture. Nature, 431, 838–841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rössler, U.K. et al. (2006) Spontaneous skyrmion ground states in magnetic metals. Nature, 442, 797–801.
A journal article with 2 or more authors
Loya, W.M. et al. (2003) Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels. Nature, 425, 705–707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, D.J. (2008) Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pandey, A. (2014) The UNC-53-mediated Interactome: Analysis of its Role in the Generation of the C. elegans Connectome, Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Browning, D.J. (2010) Systemic and Ocular Factors Influencing Diabetic Retinopathy. In Diabetic Retinopathy: Evidence-Based Management (Browning, D. J., ed), pp. 77–103, Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carcinogenesis.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 08-Apr-(2014) , Quantum Dots Can Charge Your Smartphone In 30 Seconds. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Payments by DOD for Contractors’ Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kraka, E.K. (2012) , Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). , Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 17-Aug-(2017) , Shot Caller. , New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCarcinogenesis
ISSN (print)0143-3334
ISSN (online)1460-2180
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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