How to format your references using the Carcinogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carcinogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. (2008) Triumph of the medieval mind. Nature, 452, 816–818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gentner, T.Q. et al. (2003) Neuronal populations and single cells representing learned auditory objects. Nature, 424, 669–674.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hembacher, S. et al. (2004) Force microscopy with light-atom probes. Science, 305, 380–383.
A journal article with 2 or more authors
Goodman, A.A. et al. (2009) A role for self-gravity at multiple length scales in the process of star formation. Nature, 457, 63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crowl, D.A. (2003) Understanding Explosions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Andersson, P.G., Ed. (2011) Iridium Catalysis, 34Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beck, A.M. et al. (2015) Sexual Resilience in Couples. In Couple Resilience: Emerging Perspectives ((Skerrett, K. et al., eds), pp. 63–82, Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carcinogenesis.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 06-Jan-(2014) , Action shot of sexual reproduction of 100-million-year-old-flower has been preserved in amber. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jakubowski, J.K. (2013) , Making character education a reality: An investigation of secondary teachers’ perspectives toward implementation. , Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. 21-Oct-(2010) , Lord & Taylor Lets the Light In. , New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCarcinogenesis
ISSN (print)0143-3334
ISSN (online)1460-2180
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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