How to format your references using the Canine Genetics and Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canine Genetics and Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cordes JM. Astronomy. Radio bursts, origin unknown. Science. 2013;341:40–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lake JK, Ostling A. Comment on “Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest.” Science. 2009;324:1015; author reply 1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ruefli-Brasse AA, French DM, Dixit VM. Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent lymphocyte activation and development by paracaspase. Science. 2003;302:1581–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Waldo GL, Ricks TK, Hicks SN, Cheever ML, Kawano T, Tsuboi K, et al. Kinetic scaffolding mediated by a phospholipase C-beta and Gq signaling complex. Science. 2010;330:974–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Santamarina JC, Fratta D. Discrete Signals and Inverse Problems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Noonan NC, Nadkarni V, editors. Challenge and Change: Global Threats and the State in Twenty-first Century International Politics. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ball M. The ‘Prison of Love’ and Its Queer Discontents: On the Value of Paranoid and Reparative Readings in Queer Criminological Scholarship. In: Dwyer A, Ball M, Crofts T, editors. Queering Criminology. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 54–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. 9 High-Paying, Entry-Level Jobs Companies Are Hiring For Like Crazy Right Now [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: CMS Took Steps to Improve Its Beneficiary Eligibility Verification System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Sep. Report No.: GAO-12-973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brown ML. Examining leadership and the laminated glass ceiling: Gender and leadership traits [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lanchester J. Should We Trash Cash? New York Times. 2017 Jan 10;MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanine Genetics and Epidemiology
AbbreviationCanine Genet. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2052-6687

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