How to format your references using the Canine Genetics and Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canine Genetics and Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rauchway E. Recession Watch: Work for the greater good. Nature. 2009;457:959–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tomita M, Kami K. Cancer. Systems biology, metabolomics, and cancer metabolism. Science. 2012;336:990–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pan X, Liu F, Zhang M. Comment on “Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness.” Science. 2012;335:1441; author reply 1441.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. La Porta A, Voth GA, Crawford AM, Alexander J, Bodenschatz E. Fluid particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence. Nature. 2001;409:1017–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schlechty PC. Leading for Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
1. Le Prell CG, Lobarinas E, Popper AN, Fay RR, editors. Translational Research in Audiology, Neurotology, and the Hearing Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stollberg M, Fensel D. Semantics for Service-Oriented Architectures. In: Griffiths N, Chao K-M, editors. Agent-Based Service-Oriented Computing. London: Springer; 2010. p. 113–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Incoming Secretary Of Energy Rick Perry Has No Idea What The Job Actually Is [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Improper Payments: Weaknesses in USAID’s and NASA’s Implementation of the Improper Payments Information Act and Recovery Auditing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Nov. Report No.: GAO-08-77.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Woods BA. The Perceived Efficacy of an Empowerment Model of Youth Development among Vermont Educational Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dynarski S. With a Crucial Tool Disabled, Financial Aid Applications Get Harder. New York Times. 2017 Mar 13;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanine Genetics and Epidemiology
AbbreviationCanine Genet. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2052-6687

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