How to format your references using the Canine Genetics and Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canine Genetics and Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. May M. Statistics: Attacking an epidemic. Nature. 2014;509:S50-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hill RS, Walsh CA. Molecular insights into human brain evolution. Nature. 2005;437:64–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nowacki A, Wookey J, Kendall J-M. Deformation of the lowermost mantle from seismic anisotropy. Nature. 2010;467:1091–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ohman JC, Lovejoy CO, White TD, Eckhardt RB, Galik K, Kuperavage AJ. Questions About Orrorin Femur. Science. 2005;307:845b.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Speight JG, Singh K. Environmental Management of Energy from Biofuels and Biofeedstocks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Chakraborty B. Statistical Methods for Dynamic Treatment Regimes: Reinforcement Learning, Causal Inference, and Personalized Medicine. Moodie EEM, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chervenak A, Bharathi S. Peer-to-Peer Approaches to Grid Resource Discovery. In: Fragopoulou P, Getov V, editors. Making Grids Work: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Workshop on Programming Models Grid and P2P System Architecture Grid Systems, Tools and Environments 12-13 June 2007, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. This 104-Year-Old Cyclist Is Beating The Science Of Aging [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Implementation of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: T-HRD-89-8.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bhandari S. The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly JL. Preserving Our Relevance. New York Times. 1972 Sep 4;SPORTS14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanine Genetics and Epidemiology
AbbreviationCanine Genet. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2052-6687

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