How to format your references using the Cancer Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Translational Medicine (CTN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arthur W. The emerging conceptual framework of evolutionary developmental biology. Nature 2002;415 (6873):757-64.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feldl N, Bilham R. Great Himalayan earthquakes and the Tibetan plateau. Nature 2006;444 (7116):165-70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adachi MM, Anantram MP, Karim KS. Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells. Sci Rep 2013;3:1546.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morton GJ, Cummings DE, Baskin DG, Barsh GS, Schwartz MW. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature 2006;443 (7109):289-95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valiev RZ, Zhilyaev AP, Langdon TG. Bulk Nanostructured Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
Ni Y-Q, Ye X-W, eds. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways: Volume 2. Vol 148. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Baker JE. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. In: Sardela M, editor. Practical Materials Characterization. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 133-87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Could Squid And Chips Become The New National Dish Of Great Britain? IFLScience December 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Navigation Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinneny PN. End of August. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ramirez A. A Fitting Farewell to a Literate and Offbeat Character. New York Times. March 9, 2008:A37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Translational Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2395-3977
ISSN (online)2395-3012

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