How to format your references using the Cancer Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Translational Medicine (CTN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. Mouse genome: The real deal. Nature 2002;420 (6915):456-57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones MK, Liu X. Archaeology. Origins of agriculture in East Asia. Science 2009;324 (5928):730-31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verschure PFMJ, Voegtlin T, Douglas RJ. Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots. Nature 2003;425 (6958):620-24.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
de Quervain DJ-F, Fischbacher U, Treyer V, Schellhammer M, Schnyder U, Buck A, Fehr E. The neural basis of altruistic punishment. Science 2004;305 (5688):1254-58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higman BW. How Food Made History. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Brown D, Morgenstern B, eds. Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 14th International Workshop, WABI 2014, Wroclaw, Poland, September 8-10, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 8701. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Tamir DE, Shaked NT, Wilson PJ, Dolev S. Electro-Optical DSP of Tera Operations per Second and Beyond (Extended Abstract). In: Dolev S, Haist T, Oltean M, editors. Optical SuperComputing: First International Workshop, OSC 2008, Vienna, Austria, August 26, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 56-69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Translational Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Everything You Need To Know About Elon Musk’s Plan To Colonize Mars. IFLScience September 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comprehensive Strategy Can Draw on Year 2000 Experiences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Funderburk J. Modern Variation in Predation Intensity: Constraints on Assessing Predator-Prey Relationships in Paleoecologic Reconstructions. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Playwright Intent on Naming, and Goading, the Beast Within. New York Times. September 17, 2016:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Translational Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2395-3977
ISSN (online)2395-3012

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