How to format your references using the Cancer Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Translational Medicine (CTN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohi SP. Agriculture. Carbon storage with benefits. Science 2012;338 (6110):1034-35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding L, Morrison SJ. Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches. Nature 2013;495 (7440):231-35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaufman TC, Severson DW, Robinson GE. The Anopheles genome and comparative insect genomics. Science 2002;298 (5591):97-98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burchardt S, Troll VR, Mathieu L, Emeleus HC, Donaldson CH. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber. Sci Rep 2013;3:2891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smaini L. RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Kurbanoğlu S, Al U, Erdoğan PL, Tonta Y, Uçak N, eds. E-Science and Information Management: Third International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2012, Ankara, Turkey, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. Vol 317. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Timotheou S, Panayiotou CG, Polycarpou MM. Transportation Systems: Monitoring, Control, and Security. In: Kyriakides E, Polycarpou M, editors. Intelligent Monitoring, Control, and Security of Critical Infrastructure Systems. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 125-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ancient Caiman Was A Champion Chomper. IFLScience February 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Programs: NASA’s Independent Cost Estimating Capability Needs Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham MM-X. Flymed Pharmacy, LLC, Home Delivery Services a Business Plan. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Clog for All Seasons. New York Times. October 21, 2010:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Translational Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2395-3977
ISSN (online)2395-3012

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