How to format your references using the Cancer Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Knight J. Study says authors are averse to declaring conflicts of interest. Nature. 2001;411:3–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li F, Ravetch JV. Inhibitory Fcγ receptor engagement drives adjuvant and anti-tumor activities of agonistic CD40 antibodies. Science. 2011;333:1030–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bintanja R, van de Wal RSW, Oerlemans J. Modelled atmospheric temperatures and global sea levels over the past million years. Nature. 2005;437:125–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Baldwin MP, Rhines PB, Huang H-P, McIntyre ME. Atmospheres. The jet-stream conundrum. Science. 2007;315:467–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Berto F. There’s Something about Gödel. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
1. Mjølsnes SF, Mauw S, Katsikas SK, editors. Public Key Infrastructure: 5th European PKI Workshop: Theory and Practice, EuroPKI 2008 Trondheim, Norway, June 16-17, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sokołowska K. Symplasmic Transport in Wood: The Importance of Living Xylem Cells. In: Sokołowska K, Sowiński P, editors. Symplasmic Transport in Vascular Plants. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 101–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Imaging.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Dark Side Of Research – When Chasing Prestige Becomes The Prize [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Youth Training. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: PEMD-94-32R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Douglas L. Thermogravimetric and Raman Investigations on the Mechanism of Decomposition of Lead Compounds on Tungsten Surfaces [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. For Aching Knees, a Longer Walk May Be in Store. New York Times. 2001 Aug 26;148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Imaging
AbbreviationCancer Imaging
ISSN (online)1470-7330
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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