How to format your references using the Cancer Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. D’Amico N. Astronomy. Pinpointing gravity. Science. 2009;323:1299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Evans WE, Relling MV. Moving towards individualized medicine with pharmacogenomics. Nature. 2004;429:464–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Depège N, Bellafiore S, Rochaix J-D. Role of chloroplast protein kinase Stt7 in LHCII phosphorylation and state transition in Chlamydomonas. Science. 2003;299:1572–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kim H, Lim H-D, Kim S-W, Hong J, Seo D-H, Kim D-C, et al. Scalable functionalized graphene nano-platelets as tunable cathodes for high-performance lithium rechargeable batteries. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Misstear B, Banks D, Clark L. Water Wells and Boreholes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Ochs M. Radionuclide and Metal Sorption on Cement and Concrete. 1st ed. 2016. Mallants D, Wang L, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wang V, Carayannis EG. Conclusion and Implications. In: Carayannis EG, editor. Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 91–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Imaging.

Blog post
1. Davis J. “Talking” Cod Found To Have Regional Accents, And You Can Listen To Them Here [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/talking-cod-found-to-have-regional-accents-and-you-can-listen-to-them-here/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Comments on Claim Against Mississippi for Disallowed Educational Grant Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Jul. Report No.: B-198493.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ackerina J. The call of public service: Motivation and professional commitment in education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. From the Men, A Few Highlights After the Deluge. New York Times. 2011 Sep 11;SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Imaging
AbbreviationCancer Imaging
ISSN (online)1470-7330
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Oncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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