How to format your references using the Cancer Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baulcombe D. DNA events. An RNA microcosm. Science. 2002;297:2002–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kumar K, Yang E-H. On the growth mode of two-lobed curvilinear graphene domains at atmospheric pressure. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2571.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pelkmans L, Püntener D, Helenius A. Local actin polymerization and dynamin recruitment in SV40-induced internalization of caveolae. Science. 2002;296:535–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Barlow J, França F, Gardner TA, Hicks CC, Lennox GD, Berenguer E, et al. The future of hyperdiverse tropical ecosystems. Nature. 2018;559:517–26.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wolf EL. Nanophysics of Solar and Renewable Energy. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Popov VL. Method of Dimensionality Reduction in Contact Mechanics and Friction. Heß M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ball M. The ‘Prison of Love’ and Its Queer Discontents: On the Value of Paranoid and Reparative Readings in Queer Criminological Scholarship. In: Dwyer A, Ball M, Crofts T, editors. Queering Criminology. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 54–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Imaging.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Scientists Unleash Full Einstein Equations To Model The Universe [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/physics/scientists-unleash-full-einstein-equations-to-model-the-universe/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Family Education Loan Information System: Weak Computer Controls Increase Risk of Unauthorized Access to Sensitive Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: AIMD-95-117.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Aguerrebere Y. Case study of home-school visits [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Ortved J. Bottoms Up: It’s Her Brand. New York Times. 2016 Oct 6;D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Imaging
AbbreviationCancer Imaging
ISSN (online)1470-7330
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Oncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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