How to format your references using the Canadian Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmeliet, P. (2001). Biomedicine. Clotting factors build blood vessels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5535), 1602–1604.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rilling, J. K., & Young, L. J. (2014). The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6198), 771–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Echtay, K. S., Winkler, E., & Klingenberg, M. (2000). Coenzyme Q is an obligatory cofactor for uncoupling protein function. Nature, 408(6812), 609–613.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Das, N., Chatterjee, S., Kumar, S., Pradhan, A., Panigrahi, P., Vitkin, I. A., & Ghosh, N. (2014). Tissue multifractality and Born approximation in analysis of light scattering: a novel approach for precancers detection. Scientific Reports, 4, 6129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Likhtenshtein, G. (2012). Solar Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Zhang, Y. (2006). Web Communities: Analysis and Construction (J. X. Yu & J. Hou, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Anshakov, O. M., & Gergely, T. (2010). Cognitive Reasoning Framework. In O. M. Anshakov (Ed.), Cognitive Reasoning: A Formal Approach (pp. 51–68). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 6). Giant Clams Could Inspire Better Solar Panels. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Information Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results (T-AIMD-96-46). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yudell, M. (2008). Making race: Biology and the evolution of the race concept in 20th century American thought [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J. F. (2016, October 14). Choosing a Place to Settle Down in the Age of Fitbit. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmeliet, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carmeliet, 2001; Rilling & Young, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rilling & Young, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Echtay et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Das et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Psychology
AbbreviationCan. Psychol.
ISSN (print)0708-5591
ISSN (online)1878-7304
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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