How to format your references using the Canadian Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. (2010). Chagas disease 101. Nature, 465(7301), S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pauluis, O., & Dias, J. (2012). Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6071), 953–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Derry, W. B., Putzke, A. P., & Rothman, J. H. (2001). Caenorhabditis elegans p53: role in apoptosis, meiosis, and stress resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5542), 591–595.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawakami, R., Sawada, K., Sato, A., Hibi, T., Kozawa, Y., Sato, S., Yokoyama, H., & Nemoto, T. (2013). Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picosecond pulse laser. Scientific Reports, 3, 1014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilbao, S. (2005). Wave and Scattering Methods for Numerical Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhu, M. (2015). Distributed Optimization-Based Control of Multi-Agent Networks in Complex Environments (S. Martínez, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay, P. S., Brittan, G., & Taper, M. L. (2016). Initial Difficulties Dispelled. In G. Brittan Jr. & M. L. Taper (Eds.), Belief, Evidence, and Uncertainty: Problems of Epistemic Inference (pp. 49–60). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Psychology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 24). Two-Thirds Of Cancer Mutations Down To Random Bad Luck, Claims Study. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Title 6--NAD Electronic Signature (AIMD-94-102R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morales, C. J. (2010). Can early-life activity behavior predict adult compliance with an exercise program in later life? [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 30). Wrist Management. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton, 2010; Pauluis & Dias, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pauluis & Dias, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Derry et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kawakami et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Psychology
AbbreviationCan. Psychol.
ISSN (print)0708-5591
ISSN (online)1878-7304
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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