How to format your references using the Case Studies in Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.J. Shatz, Lawrence C. Katz (1956-2005), Nature. 439 (2006) 152.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.L. Heilbron, W.F. Bynum, Millennial highlights...from Gerbert d’Aurillac to Watson and Crick, Nature. 403 (2000) 13–16.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Rustagi, S. Engel, M. Kosfeld, Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management, Science. 330 (2010) 961–965.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Zhai, D. Pierre, R. Si, W. Deng, P. Ferrin, A.U. Nilekar, G. Peng, J.A. Herron, D.C. Bell, H. Saltsburg, M. Mavrikakis, M. Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Alkali-stabilized Pt-OHx species catalyze low-temperature water-gas shift reactions, Science. 329 (2010) 1633–1636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Mazzi, Treasury Finance and Development Banking, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Y. Yang, M. Ma, eds., Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012 (GCN 2012): Volume 2, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Winstead, V. McKoy, Electron–Biomolecule Collision Studies Using the Schwinger Multichannel Method, in: G. García Gómez-Tejedor, M.C. Fuss (Eds.), Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 87–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Structural Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Some people think astrology is a science – here’s why, IFLScience. (2014).–-heres-why/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation and Telecommunications Reports and Testimony: May 1992 - April 1993, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Lindsey, Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; As Race Looks Tighter, Theme Is Truth and Trust, New York Times. (1992) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Structural Engineering
AbbreviationCase Stud. Struct. Eng.
ISSN (print)2214-3998
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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