How to format your references using the Case Studies in Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Rowan-Robinson, Astronomy. Probing the cold universe, Science. 325 (2009) 546–547.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.D. Biju, F. Bossuyt, New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles, Nature. 425 (2003) 711–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Mason, M.J. Biercuk, C.M. Marcus, Local gate control of a carbon nanotube double quantum dot, Science. 303 (2004) 655–658.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Chen, J. Fan, H. Chen, Z. Meng, Z. Chen, P. Wang, L. Liu, The IL-8/CXCR1 axis is associated with cancer stem cell-like properties and correlates with clinical prognosis in human pancreatic cancer cases, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5911.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lemaire, Mechanics and Uncertainty, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
G. Mrozynski, Electromagnetic Field Theory: A Collection of Problems, Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Xia, X. Kong, Z. Xu, Cyber-Physical Control Over Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks with Packet Loss, in: S.K. Mazumder (Ed.), Wireless Networking Based Control, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 85–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Structural Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Stem Cell Discovery Could Lead To Treatments For Various Blood And Immune Disorders, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Railroad Safety: DOD Can Improve the Safety of On-Base Track and Equipment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.J. Carpenter, The Relationship between School Leadership Practices And School Climate, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, European Debt Crisis Could Touch A.I.G, New York Times. (2010) B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Structural Engineering
AbbreviationCase Stud. Struct. Eng.
ISSN (print)2214-3998
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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