How to format your references using the Case Studies in Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Rørth, Cell biology. Reach out and touch someone, Science. 343 (2014) 848–849.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Sonderegger, L. Patthy, Comment on “Tequila, a neurotrypsin ortholog, regulates long-term memory formation in Drosophila,” Science. 316 (2007) 1698; author reply 1698.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.A. Tucker, D.L. Hanuscin, C.J. Bearnes, The pipeline. Igniting girls’ interest in science, Science. 319 (2008) 1621–1622.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Ibrahim, J. Rohr, W.-J. Jeong, J. Hesson, H. Cerutti, Untemplated oligoadenylation promotes degradation of RISC-cleaved transcripts, Science. 314 (2006) 1893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Weinstein, The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
J.L. Clark, J.D. Speth, eds., Zooarchaeology and Modern Human Origins: Human Hunting Behavior during the Later Pleistocene, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Dimond, R.P. Patel, S.T.R. Zaidi, Fluoroquinolones, in: S.T.R. Zaidi, J.A. Roberts (Eds.), Drug Dosing in Obesity: Volume I: Antimicrobials, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 45–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Structural Engineering.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, How We Can Use The Moon To Get To Mars, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Avoiding Disruption of Critical Services Will Require Additional Work, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Burg, Faculty perspectives on doctoral student mentoring: The mentor’s odyssey, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, D.M. Herszenhorn, Punk Band’s Moscow Trial Offers Platform for Orthodox Protesters, New York Times. (2012) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Structural Engineering
AbbreviationCase Stud. Struct. Eng.
ISSN (print)2214-3998
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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