How to format your references using the Applied Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Elmegreen BG. Astronomy. Dark matter in galactic collisional debris. Science 2007;316:1132–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Trakhtenberg EF, Goldberg JL. Immunology. Neuroimmune communication. Science 2011;334:47–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Lam FH, Steger DJ, O’Shea EK. Chromatin decouples promoter threshold from dynamic range. Nature 2008;453:246–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Gallup AC, Chong A, Kacelnik A, Krebs JR, Couzin ID. The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians. Sci Rep 2014;4:5794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Wartewig S. IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Wang DH, editor. Molecular Sensors for Cardiovascular Homeostasis. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Franzon P. Use of AC Coupled Interconnect in Contactless Packaging. In: Ho R, Drost R, editors. Coupled Data Communication Techniques for High-Performance and Low-Power Computing, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010, p. 127–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Energy.

Blog post
[1]
Evans K. 17 Science-Backed Ways Men Can Appear More Attractive To Women. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/17-science-backed-ways-men-can-appear-more-attractive-to-women/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Longer Combination Trucks: Driver Controls and Equipment Inspection Should Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Bratton EW. Clinical management and outcomes of patients in the Duke Cryptococcosis Clinical Cohort, 1996 - 2009. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Passes Bill Allowing It to Declare a Moratorium on Its Debt. New York Times 2016:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Energy
AbbreviationAppl. Energy
ISSN (print)0306-2619
ScopeGeneral Energy
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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