How to format your references using the Applied Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Freeman M. Feedback control of intercellular signalling in development. Nature 2000;408:313–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Xu W, Angell CA. Solvent-free electrolytes with aqueous solution-like conductivities. Science 2003;302:422–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Bußhardt P, Kunze D, Gorb SN. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Sci Rep 2014;4:6998.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Prinzbach H, Weiler A, Landenberger P, Wahl F, Worth J, Scott LT, et al. Gas-phase production and photoelectron spectroscopy of the smallest fullerene, C20. Nature 2000;407:60–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Avdeef A. Absorption and Drug Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Fodor L. Aesthetic Applications of Intense Pulsed Light. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Nisiforou EA, Michailidou E, Laghos A. Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Impact of Cognitive Abilities on Search Tasks. In: Stephanidis C, Antona M, editors. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and Accessibility Practice: 8th International Conference, UAHCI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 46–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Energy.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. “Heat Bombs” May Explain Why The Sun’s Outer Atmosphere Is So Hot. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/heat-bombs-may-explain-why-the-suns-outer-atmosphere-is-so-hot/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. HUD Information Technology: More Work Remains to Implement Necessary Management Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Chakravarty S. Harvesting health: Fertilizer, nutrition and AIDS treatment in Kenya. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Craig S. Trump’s Empire: A Maze of Debts and Opaque Ties. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Energy
AbbreviationAppl. Energy
ISSN (print)0306-2619
ScopeGeneral Energy
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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