How to format your references using the Applied Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Wadman M. Women and ethnic minorities needed for US skills gap. Nature 2000;404:800.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Wilson TD, Bar-Anan Y. Psychology. The unseen mind. Science 2008;321:1046–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Mosey NJ, Müser MH, Woo TK. Molecular mechanisms for the functionality of lubricant additives. Science 2005;307:1612–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Virtanen A, Joutsensaari J, Koop T, Kannosto J, Yli-Pirilä P, Leskinen J, et al. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles. Nature 2010;467:824–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Singer B, Fedorinchik G. Investment Leadership and Portfolio Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
[1]
Choi SH, Kasama K, editors. Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
de Alfaro L, da Silva LD, Faella M, Legay A, Roy P, Sorea M. Sociable Interfaces. In: Gramlich B, editor. Frontiers of Combining Systems: 5th International Workshop, FroCoS 2005, Vienna, Austria, September 19-21, 2005. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 81–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Energy.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew D. Humans Are Still Evolving But In Ways That Might Surprise You. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/humans-are-still-evolving-but-in-ways-that-might-surprise-you/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service Needs to Further Strengthen Program Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Blicha EA. Music therapy program for older adults: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
[1]
Williams J. A Hidden Hero Brought to Light. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Energy
AbbreviationAppl. Energy
ISSN (print)0306-2619
ScopeGeneral Energy
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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