How to format your references using the Calphad citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Calphad. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.C. Jackson, Climate change. Parallel pursuit of near-term and long-term climate mitigation, Science. 326 (2009) 526–527.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Kessler, B.T. Werner, Self-organization of sorted patterned ground, Science. 299 (2003) 380–383.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.R. Ravishankara, J.S. Daniel, R.W. Portmann, Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century, Science. 326 (2009) 123–125.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Wang, S. Juranek, H. Li, G. Sheng, G.S. Wardle, T. Tuschl, D.J. Patel, Nucleation, propagation and cleavage of target RNAs in Ago silencing complexes, Nature. 461 (2009) 754–761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Kossiakoff, W.N. Sweet, Systems Engineering Principles and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
M. Boughanem, C. Berrut, J. Mothe, C. Soule-Dupuy, eds., Advances in Information Retrieval: 31th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2009, Toulouse, France, April 6-9, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Christopher, W.M.A. Hussein, Z. Wang, On the Integrability of Lotka–Volterra Equations: An Update, in: B. Toni (Ed.), Mathematical Sciences with Multidisciplinary Applications: In Honor of Professor Christiane Rousseau. And In Recognition of the Mathematics for Planet Earth Initiative, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 79–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Calphad.

Blog post
R. Andrews, The UAE Wants To Build A City On Mars By 2117, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Environmental Satellites: Focused Attention Needed to Improve Mitigation Strategies for Satellite Coverage Gaps, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.T. Bernstine, Experiences of Students Transferring from Community and Technical Colleges to a Private Nonprofit University, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Russia: 2 Arrested After Band’s Protest At Moscow Cathedral to Remain Jailed, New York Times. (2012) A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCalphad
ISSN (print)0364-5916
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Computer Science Applications

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