How to format your references using the Calphad citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Calphad. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Strasser, CHEMISTRY. Catalysts by Platonic design, Science. 349 (2015) 379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-Y. Wang, C.C. Malbon, Wnt signaling, Ca2+, and cyclic GMP: visualizing Frizzled functions, Science. 300 (2003) 1529–1530.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Bai, Y. Zhang, J. Hao, Tuning of near-infrared luminescence of SrTiO3:Ni2+ thin films grown on piezoelectric PMN-PT via strain engineering, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5724.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Collinet, M. Stöter, C.R. Bradshaw, N. Samusik, J.C. Rink, D. Kenski, B. Habermann, F. Buchholz, R. Henschel, M.S. Mueller, W.E. Nagel, E. Fava, Y. Kalaidzidis, M. Zerial, Systems survey of endocytosis by multiparametric image analysis, Nature. 464 (2010) 243–249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. MacClancy, Anthropology in the Public Arena, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
S.O. Hansson, ed., David Makinson on Classical Methods for Non-Classical Problems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
P.E. Clark, M.L. Rilee, Longwave Region: Mid to Thermal Infrared, Microwave, and Radio, in: M.L. Rilee (Ed.), Remote Sensing Tools for Exploration: Observing and Interpreting the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Springer, New York, NY, 2010: pp. 178–252.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Calphad.

Blog post
B. Taub, Why Do We Have Nightmares?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security are Under Way, but Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Lindsey, Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. Neuman, Colombian Rebels Call Unilateral Truce, New York Times. (2014) A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCalphad
ISSN (print)0364-5916
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Computer Science Applications

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