How to format your references using the Calphad citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Calphad. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.C. Raymond, Astronomy. Imaging the Sun’s eruptions in three dimensions, Science. 305 (2004) 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.B. Araújo, C. Rahbek, Ecology. How does climate change affect biodiversity?, Science. 313 (2006) 1396–1397.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.A. Elion, M. Qi, W. Chen, Signal transduction. Signaling specificity in yeast, Science. 307 (2005) 687–688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.A. Nóbrega, Y. Zhu, I. Plajzer-Frick, V. Afzal, E.M. Rubin, Megabase deletions of gene deserts result in viable mice, Nature. 431 (2004) 988–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y.-H. Kim, Sound Propagation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
N. Alfirević, J. Burušić, J. Pavičić, R. Relja, eds., School Effectiveness and Educational Management: Towards a South-Eastern Europe Research and Public Policy Agenda, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. de Luca, F. D’Alessandro, Equivalenza di automi, in: F. D’Alessandro (Ed.), Teoria Degli Automi Finiti, Springer, Milano, 2013: pp. 179–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Calphad.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, How NASA Is Preparing For Missions To Mars, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Management and Oversight of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.M. Vidal, Alcohol disorder with hip or knee surgery: Postoperative alcohol disorder-related costs and length of stay, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, In Showdown, Sure Hands And Shaky Ones, New York Times. (2010) SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCalphad
ISSN (print)0364-5916
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Computer Science Applications

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