How to format your references using the Calphad citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Calphad. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Bourzac, Diagnosis: Early warning system, Nature. 513 (2014) S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Huang, D. Li, Soil nitric oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems in China: a synthesis of modeling and measurements, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7406.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.D. Morgan, S. Gandon, A. Buckling, The effect of migration on local adaptation in a coevolving host-parasite system, Nature. 437 (2005) 253–256.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F.L. Heppner, C. Musahl, I. Arrighi, M.A. Klein, T. Rülicke, B. Oesch, R.M. Zinkernagel, U. Kalinke, A. Aguzzi, Prevention of scrapie pathogenesis by transgenic expression of anti-prion protein antibodies, Science. 294 (2001) 178–182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.G. Collier, Hydrometeorology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
M. Malcangio, ed., Synaptic Plasticity in Pain, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Cazaux, G. Sacomoto, E. Rivals, Superstring Graph: A New Approach for Genome Assembly, in: R. Dondi, G. Fertin, G. Mauri (Eds.), Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 11th International Conference, AAIM 2016, Bergamo, Italy, July 18-20, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 39–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Calphad.

Blog post
K. Evans, First Pan-African Elephant Census Reveals Dramatic Decline Due To Poaching, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Science Foundation-Supported Science Education Materials, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Kapatsinski, The architecture of grammar in artificial grammar learning: Formal biases in the acquisition of morphophonology and the nature of the learning task, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, MOSCOW: FABERGÉ DISPLAY, New York Times. (2004) E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCalphad
ISSN (print)0364-5916
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Computer Science Applications

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