How to format your references using the CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Triplett, Astronomers fume over night light, Nature. 405 (2000) 987–988.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Chen, J. Du, Ultrasound and pH dually responsive polymer vesicles for anticancer drug delivery, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2162.
A journal article with 3 authors
U.S. Bhalla, P.T. Ram, R. Iyengar, MAP kinase phosphatase as a locus of flexibility in a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling network, Science. 297 (2002) 1018–1023.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Vernazza, R.P. Binzel, C.A. Thomas, F.E. DeMeo, S.J. Bus, A.S. Rivkin, A.T. Tokunaga, Compositional differences between meteorites and near-Earth asteroids, Nature. 454 (2008) 858–860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
C. Merino, ed., Lectures on Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology: Proceedings of the Third IDPASC School, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, January 21 -- February 2, 2013, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Duggan, Y. Wu, Security Correctness for Secure Nested Transactions, in: M. Abadi, A. Lluch Lafuente (Eds.), Trustworthy Global Computing: 8th International Symposium, TGC 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 30-31, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 64–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology.

Blog post
K. Evans, Hundreds Of Snow Leopards Killed Every Year In “Retaliation,” IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Major Factors Inhibit Expansion of the School Breakfast Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.W. Bornmann, Becoming soldiers: Army Basic Training and the negotiation of identity, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Sorting Out their Goals, and Options, New York Times. (2009) WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology
AbbreviationCAAI Trans. Intell. Technol.
ISSN (print)2468-2322

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