How to format your references using the CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.H. Hoeijmakers, Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer, Nature. 411 (2001) 366–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.A. Mbadugha, A.O. Onakoya, The awareness, perceptions and experiences of primary open angle glaucoma patients in Lagos Nigeria, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7585.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Nicastro, S. Mathur, M. Elvis, Missing baryons and the warm-hot intergalactic medium, Science. 319 (2008) 55–57.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Wang, I. Garcia-Bassets, C. Benner, W. Li, X. Su, Y. Zhou, J. Qiu, W. Liu, M.U. Kaikkonen, K.A. Ohgi, C.K. Glass, M.G. Rosenfeld, X.-D. Fu, Reprogramming transcription by distinct classes of enhancers functionally defined by eRNA, Nature. 474 (2011) 390–394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.E. Schiesser, Spline Collocation Methods for Partial Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
B.W. Wenclawiak, M. Koch, E. Hadjicostas, eds., Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Training and Teaching, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Minelli, Individuals, Hierarchies and the Levels of Selection: A Chapter in Stephen J. Gould’s Evolutionary Theory, in: G.A. Danieli, A. Minelli, T. Pievani (Eds.), Stephen J. Gould: The Scientific Legacy, Springer, Milano, 2013: pp. 73–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Psychology Can Help Us Solve Climate Change, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Lands: Enhanced Planning Could Assist Agencies in Managing Increased Use of Off-Highway Vehicles, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.S. Gokhin, Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Bruce Is Again Hitting Homers, and Again Not Attracting Interest, New York Times. (2017) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology
AbbreviationCAAI Trans. Intell. Technol.
ISSN (print)2468-2322

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