How to format your references using the CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Robert, Isotope geochemistry. The origin of water on earth, Science. 293 (2001) 1056–1058.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.J. Madix, C.M. Friend, Interfacial chemistry: gold’s enigmatic surface, Nature. 479 (2011) 482–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Mancini, P.F. Ferrari, E. Palagi, Rapid facial mimicry in geladas, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1527.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.M. Whitney, M. Kolle, P. Andrew, L. Chittka, U. Steiner, B.J. Glover, Floral iridescence, produced by diffractive optics, acts as a cue for animal pollinators, Science. 323 (2009) 130–133.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Katsilambros, C. Kanaka-Gantenbein, S. Liatis, K. Makrilakis, N. Tentolouris, Diabetic Emergencies, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A. Spink, C. Cole, eds., New Directions in Human Information Behavior, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
M.P. Federle, Use of Imaging Techniques to Screen for Hepatocellular Carcinoma, in: B.I. Carr (Ed.), Hepatocellular Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2005: pp. 117–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology.

Blog post
J. Davis, The Two-Spot Octopus Can See Without Eyes, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Communications Commission: Implementation of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.I. Mbwiri, Remedial Math Instruction Intervention: Efficacy of Constructivist Practices on Alternative Students with Disabilities Mathematics Achievement, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Ex-Premier’s Real Estate Deal Investigated, New York Times. (2005) A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCAAI Transactions on Intelligence Technology
AbbreviationCAAI Trans. Intell. Technol.
ISSN (print)2468-2322

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