How to format your references using the Brain Topography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Topography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilmore G (2004) Astronomy. The short spectacular life of a superstar. Science 304:1915–1916
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons LW, Roberts B (2005) Bacterial immunity traded for sperm viability in male crickets. Science 309:2031
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshimura K, Onda Y, Fukushima T (2014) Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident. Sci Rep 4:4514
A journal article with 5 or more authors
West RA, Brown ME, Salinas SV, et al (2005) No oceans on Titan from the absence of a near-infrared specular reflection. Nature 436:670–672

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hinkelmann K, Kempthorne O (2005) Design and Analysis of Experiments: Advanced Experimental Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Grigoriev YN (2010) Symmetries of Integro-Differential Equations: With Applications in Mechanics and Plasma Physics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Deng Y (2016) The Expansion of Kant’s Republicanism with Active Citizenship. In: Cudd AE, Lee W-C (eds) Citizenship and Immigration - Borders, Migration and Political Membership in a Global Age. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Topography.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) We Talk To Neil deGrasse Tyson About Mars One, Being A Geek, And How To Get People Excited About Science. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) John P. Abbadessa, 1947-1962. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vatankhah I (2017) Purification of Industrial Grade Urea for diesel exhaust pollution reduction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) A Rich Baseball History, Now on Display. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilmore 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gilmore 2004; Simmons and Roberts 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Roberts 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (West et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Topography
AbbreviationBrain Topogr.
ISSN (print)0896-0267
ISSN (online)1573-6792
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles