How to format your references using the Brain Topography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Topography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lehn J-M (2002) Toward self-organization and complex matter. Science 295:2400–2403
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowan L, Coontz R (2002) Great balls of fire. Star formation: a Web supplement. Science 295:63
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishiyama T, Ohsumi K, Kishimoto T (2007) Phosphorylation of Erp1 by p90rsk is required for cytostatic factor arrest in Xenopus laevis eggs. Nature 446:1096–1099
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Canestrelli D, Bisconti R, Sacco F, Nascetti G (2014) What triggers the rising of an intraspecific biodiversity hotspot? Hints from the agile frog. Sci Rep 4:5042

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murdoch I, Turpin S, Johnston B, et al (2014) Geriatric Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Riemann B (2016) On the Hypotheses Which Lie at the Bases of Geometry. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Romero-Puertas MC, Ortega-Galisteo AP, Rodríguez-Serrano M, Sandalio LM (2012) Insights into Cadmium Toxicity: Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Function. In: Gupta DK, Sandalio LM (eds) Metal Toxicity in Plants: Perception, Signaling and Remediation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 91–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Topography.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) How Do Chameleons Change The Color Of Their Skin? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Commercial Space: FAA Should Examine How to Appropriately Regulate Space Support Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrett BT (2015) Modernizing Copyright for Equitable Treatment in the Streaming Age. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay G, Currie A (2010) Barclays’ Appetite For a U.S. Bank. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lehn 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rowan and Coontz 2002; Lehn 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowan and Coontz 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Canestrelli et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Topography
AbbreviationBrain Topogr.
ISSN (print)0896-0267
ISSN (online)1573-6792
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles