How to format your references using the Brain Topography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Topography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radford T (2011) Of course scientists can communicate. Nature 469:445
A journal article with 2 authors
Nielsen R, Hubisz MJ (2005) Evolutionary genomics: detecting selection needs comparative data. Nature 433:E6; discussion E7-8
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun BK, Siprashvili Z, Khavari PA (2014) Advances in skin grafting and treatment of cutaneous wounds. Science 346:941–945
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stenman JM, Rajagopal J, Carroll TJ, et al (2008) Canonical Wnt signaling regulates organ-specific assembly and differentiation of CNS vasculature. Science 322:1247–1250

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau VKN, Ricky Kwok Y-K (2006) Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lai X, Gu D, Jin B, et al (eds) (2011) Forensics in Telecommunications, Information, and Multimedia: Third International ICST Conference, e-Forensics 2010, Shanghai, China, November 11-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Nagoshi JL, Nagoshi CT, Brzuzy S (2014) The Qualitative Approach to Socially Constructed Identities. In: Nagoshi CT, Brzuzy S (eds) Gender and Sexual Identity: Transcending Feminist and Queer Theory. Springer, New York, NY, pp 55–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Topography.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Here’s A List Of Every Upcoming Space Mission For The Next Twenty Years - And Some Of Them Are Unbelievably Awesome. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Global Positioning Technology: Opportunities for Greater Federal Agency Joint Development and Use. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olsen SL (2017) A Year of Sin An Experiential Exhibition of Sin. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) How the Titan Who Terrified The New Yorker Ended Up Saving It. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Radford 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Nielsen and Hubisz 2005; Radford 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nielsen and Hubisz 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Stenman et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Topography
AbbreviationBrain Topogr.
ISSN (print)0896-0267
ISSN (online)1573-6792
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles