How to format your references using the Brain Topography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Topography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hall KB (2014) Molecular biology: Protein binding cannot subdue a lively RNA. Nature 506:303–304
A journal article with 2 authors
Chittka L, Peng F (2013) Neuroscience. Caffeine boosts bees’ memories. Science 339:1157–1159
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai BS, Chadha A, Cook B (2014) The stum gene is essential for mechanical sensing in proprioceptive neurons. Science 343:1256–1259
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhao Q, Yang K, Li W, Xing B (2014) Concentration-dependent polyparameter linear free energy relationships to predict organic compound sorption on carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep 4:3888

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cayoun BA (2015) Mindfulness-integrated CBT for Well-being and Personal Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Zembylas M, Schutz PA (eds) (2016) Methodological Advances in Research on Emotion and Education, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Athanasiadou S, Houdijk JGM (2010) Nutrition and Immunity in Animal Disease: Lessons from Parasitic Gastroenteritis. In: Watson RR, Zibadi S, Preedy VR (eds) Dietary Components and Immune Function. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 63–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Topography.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Newly Discovered Layer In Earth’s Mantle Can Affect Surface Dwellers Too. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) Query Concerning FY 1985 Authorization Levels for Department of Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boudreau PD (2015) Orthogonality in Natural Products Workflows. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Investors Give $90 Million To a Flying Car Start-Up. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hall 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chittka and Peng 2013; Hall 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chittka and Peng 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Topography
AbbreviationBrain Topogr.
ISSN (print)0896-0267
ISSN (online)1573-6792
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles