How to format your references using the Brain Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D., 2010. Entertaining science. Nature 466, 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsch, E., Novelli, F., 2014. Cancer: natural-born killers unleashed. Nature 510, 342–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolyaninov, I.I., Hung, Y.-J., Davis, C.C., 2007. Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range. Science 315, 1699–1701.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vandersypen, L.M., Steffen, M., Breyta, G., Yannoni, C.S., Sherwood, M.H., Chuang, I.L., 2001. Experimental realization of Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature 414, 883–887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Posudin, Y., 2014. Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lugtenberg, B. (Ed.), 2015. Principles of Plant-Microbe Interactions: Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Pitt, J.I., Hocking, A.D., 2009. Methods for Isolation, Enumeration and Identification, in: Hocking, A.D. (Ed.), Fungi and Food Spoilage. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 19–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Research.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. All The World’s Spiders Eat As Much Prey As All The World’s Whales [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. USDA Proposal for Handling Conversions in ADPE Procurements (No. 092139). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murphy-Perez, E., 2013. Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) Grown Silica Nanowires as the Interface for Biorecognition Molecules in Biosensors (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices Uphold Lethal Injection In Kentucky Case. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hirsch and Novelli, 2014; Sarewitz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirsch and Novelli, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Vandersypen et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Research
AbbreviationBrain Res.
ISSN (print)0006-8993
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology
Clinical Neurology
General Neuroscience

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