How to format your references using the Brain Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dushoff, J., 2004. Comment on “Metapopulation persistence with age-dependent disturbance or succession.” Science 304, 684; author reply 684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Acemoglu, D., Robinson, J., 2009. Economics. Foundations of societal inequality. Science 326, 678–679.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suma, K., Sumiyoshi, Y., Endo, Y., 2005. The rotational spectrum and structure of the HOOO radical. Science 308, 1885–1886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jimenez, R., Flynn, C., MacDonald, J., Gibson, B.K., 2003. The cosmic production of helium. Science 299, 1552–1555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tasman, A., Kay, J., Ursano, R.J., 2013. The Psychiatric Interview. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Perbal, A., Takigawa, M., Perbal, B. (Eds.), 2010. CCN Proteins in Health and Disease: An Overview of the Fifth International Workshop on the CCN Family of Genes. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Simons, E., 2008. Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, in: Fleagle, J.G., Gilbert, C.C. (Eds.), Elwyn Simons: A Search for Origins, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 35–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. San Andreas Earthquakes May Be Triggered By The Pull Of The Sun And The Moon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Controls Over Funds Available to the District of Columbia Public Schools (No. B-118638). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vundavilli, R., 2014. Bubble Removal in Microfluidic Devices Using Nanofibrous Membranes (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G., 2013. Forget All the Rest, He’s Mr. Condiment. New York Times ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dushoff, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Acemoglu and Robinson, 2009; Dushoff, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Acemoglu and Robinson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Jimenez et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Research
AbbreviationBrain Res.
ISSN (print)0006-8993
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology
Clinical Neurology
General Neuroscience

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