How to format your references using the Brain Imaging and Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Imaging and Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, N. J. (2008). Qinghaosu (artemisinin): the price of success. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5874), 330–334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domkin, V., & Chabes, A. (2014). Phosphines are ribonucleotide reductase reductants that act via C-terminal cysteines similar to thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. Scientific reports, 4, 5539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fried, S. D., Bagchi, S., & Boxer, S. G. (2014). Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6216), 1510–1514.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Porath, D., Bezryadin, A., de Vries, S., & Dekker, C. (2000). Direct measurement of electrical transport through DNA molecules. Nature, 403(6770), 635–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iwacz, G., Jajszczyk, A., & Zajączkowski, M. (2008). Multimedia Broadcasting and Multicasting in Mobile Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fabbro, S. (Ed.). (2015). Mega Transport Infrastructure Planning: European Corridors in Local-Regional Perspective (1st ed. 2015.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Qian, X., Huang, H., Duan, Z., Zhang, J., Yuan, N., Zhou, Y., et al. (2007). Optimized Register Renaming Scheme for Stack-Based x86 Operations. In P. Lukowicz, L. Thiele, & G. Tröster (Eds.), Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 43–56). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Imaging and Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 1). Health Check: Can Your Brain Be ‘Full’? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Railroad Financing: Stakeholders’ Views on Recent Changes to the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program (No. GAO-16-714R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, B. L. (2017). A Qualitative Study of Veteran Students’ Perspectives of Their Academic Experiences (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 2). Collins Will Move From Dugout to Front Office as Mets Turn to Other Questions. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Domkin and Chabes 2014; White 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domkin and Chabes 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Porath et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Imaging and Behavior
AbbreviationBrain Imaging Behav.
ISSN (print)1931-7557
ISSN (online)1931-7565
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles