How to format your references using the Brain Imaging and Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Imaging and Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moses, M. (2009). Being human: engineering: worldwide ebb. Nature, 457(7230), 660–661.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohde, R. A., & Muller, R. A. (2005). Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature, 434(7030), 208–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., & Jiang, W.-L. (2014). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Scientific reports, 4, 4731.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ideta, A., Aoyagi, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Kamijima, T., Nishimiya, Y., & Tsuda, S. (2013). A simple medium enables bovine embryos to be held for seven days at 4°C. Scientific reports, 3, 1173.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grove, L. C. (1997). Groups and Characters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marcus, A. (Ed.). (2015). Design, User Experience, and Usability: Design Discourse: 4th International Conference, DUXU 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 9186). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Patrick, S., & McDowell, A. (2013). Propionibacterium acnes: An Emerging Pathogen in Biomaterial-Associated Infection. In T. F. Moriarty, S. A. J. Zaat, & H. J. Busscher (Eds.), Biomaterials Associated Infection: Immunological Aspects and Antimicrobial Strategies (pp. 87–105). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Imaging and Behavior.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, December 1). Will We Ever Be Able To Bring Cryogenically Frozen Corpses Back To Life? A Cryobiologist Explains. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Computer-Based Patient Records: Short-Term Progress Made, but Much Work Remains to Achieve a Two-Way Data Exchange Between VA and DOD Health Systems (No. GAO-04-271T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kern, M. W. (2012). Regional phylogenetic analysis of the myology of primates and correlates in the human skeleton (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2017, February 9). Investing in the Pain of Student Debt Is a Tough but Tempting Play. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moses 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Moses 2009; Rohde and Muller 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohde and Muller 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ideta et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Imaging and Behavior
AbbreviationBrain Imaging Behav.
ISSN (print)1931-7557
ISSN (online)1931-7565
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles