How to format your references using the Brain Imaging and Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Imaging and Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oehler, S. (2011). Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6034), 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattachan, A., & D’Odorico, P. (2014). Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean? Scientific reports, 4, 6009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tibi, R., Wiens, D. A., & Inoue, H. (2003). Remote triggering of deep earthquakes in the 2002 Tonga sequences. Nature, 424(6951), 921–925.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hugel, T., Holland, N. B., Cattani, A., Moroder, L., Seitz, M., & Gaub, H. E. (2002). Single-molecule optomechanical cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1103–1106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J. J., Trotter, W. D., & Phillips, P. P. (2015). Maximizing the Value of Consulting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Polaina, J., & MacCabe, A. P. (Eds.). (2007). Industrial Enzymes: Structure, Function and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Simenel, C. (2014). From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules and Neutron-Star Crusts in a Dynamical Mean-Field Approach. In C. Beck (Ed.), Clusters in Nuclei, Volume 3 (pp. 95–145). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Imaging and Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 21). Vivid Purple Jellyfish May Be A New Species. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts (No. GAO-07-225T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malet, D. S. (2009). Foreign fighters: Transnational identity in civil conflicts (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, May 12). Spotify Is Said to Favor Direct Listing on N.Y.S.E. Over Public Offering. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oehler 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bhattachan and D’Odorico 2014; Oehler 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhattachan and D’Odorico 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hugel et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Imaging and Behavior
AbbreviationBrain Imaging Behav.
ISSN (print)1931-7557
ISSN (online)1931-7565
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles