How to format your references using the Brain Imaging and Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Imaging and Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abeles, M. (2004). Neuroscience. Time is precious. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5670), 523–524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vigevani, L., & Valcárcel, J. (2014). Molecular biology. A splicing magic bullet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6197), 624–625.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandy, D., Muñoz-Jaramillo, A., & Martens, P. C. H. (2011). The unusual minimum of sunspot cycle 23 caused by meridional plasma flow variations. Nature, 471(7336), 80–82.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, J., Sasaki, K., Sutter, E., & Adzic, R. R. (2007). Stabilization of platinum oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts using gold clusters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5809), 220–222.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux, É. (2008). Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mosteller, F. (2010). The Pleasures of Statistics: The Autobiography of Frederick Mosteller. (S. E. Fienberg, D. C. Hoaglin, & J. M. Tanur, Eds.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cai, W., & Shalaev, V. (2010). Magnetic Metamaterials. In V. Shalaev (Ed.), Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 77–100). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Imaging and Behavior.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, May 5). The Eta Aquarid Meteor Shower Peaks TONIGHT. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Budget Authority Rescission Proposals (No. OGC-82-11). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kerr, A. B. (2012). Exploring relationship awareness in organizational change using the Strength Deployment Inventory (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay, G., & Currie, A. (2010, March 11). Barclays’ Appetite For a U.S. Bank. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abeles 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Abeles 2004; Vigevani and Valcárcel 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vigevani and Valcárcel 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Imaging and Behavior
AbbreviationBrain Imaging Behav.
ISSN (print)1931-7557
ISSN (online)1931-7565
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles