How to format your references using the Brain Imaging and Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Imaging and Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2008). Financial planning. Nature, 454(7205), 680.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, M., & Lingner, J. (2008). Cell signaling. Tel2 finally tells one story. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5872), 60–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Locher, K. P., Lee, A. T., & Rees, D. C. (2002). The E. coli BtuCD structure: a framework for ABC transporter architecture and mechanism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1091–1098.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Malmström, J., Beck, M., Schmidt, A., Lange, V., Deutsch, E. W., & Aebersold, R. (2009). Proteome-wide cellular protein concentrations of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans. Nature, 460(7256), 762–765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker, C., & Fincham, B. (2011). Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Muyeen, S. M. (Ed.). (2012). Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Technology and Trends. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boudjadar, A., Dingel, J., Madzar, B., & Kim, J. H. (2016). Compositional Predictability Analysis of Mixed Critical Real Time Systems. In C. Artho & P. C. Ölveczky (Eds.), Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems: 4th International Workshop, FTSCS 2015, Paris, France, November 6-7, 2015. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 69–84). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Imaging and Behavior.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, August 10). 10 Popular “Life Hacks” That Are Completely Bogus. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: DHS Needs to Fully Define and Implement Policies and Procedures for Effectively Managing Investments (No. GAO-07-424). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, M. S. (2009). Solid families: Community-based program for pregnant and parenting adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, April 15). Just for You, Sarah Jessica, but .. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Chang and Lingner 2008; Goldston 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang and Lingner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Malmström et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Imaging and Behavior
AbbreviationBrain Imaging Behav.
ISSN (print)1931-7557
ISSN (online)1931-7565
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles