How to format your references using the BMC Obesity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Obesity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Percy AK. Neuroscience. Path to treat Rett syndrome. Science. 2013;342:318–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Souza AMC, Andrade RFS. Coin state properties in quantum walks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1976.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hicks WM, Kim M, Haber JE. Increased mutagenesis and unique mutation signature associated with mitotic gene conversion. Science. 2010;329:82–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Johansen A, Oishi JS, Mac Low M-M, Klahr H, Henning T, Youdin A. Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar disks. Nature. 2007;448:1022–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Conrick C IV, Hanson S. Vertical Option Spreads. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Mancuso C, Jommi C, D’Onza F, editors. Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications: Volume 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Daun H, Siminou P. Decentralisation and Market Mechanisms in Education – Examples from Six European Countries. In: Zajda J, Gamage DT, editors. Decentralisation, School-Based Management, and Quality. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 77–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Obesity.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. 90 Megacity Mayors Pledge To Fight Dangerous Climate Change. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/90-megacity-mayors-pledge-fight-damgerous-climate-change/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. U.S. Statistics on International Technology Transfer: Need for Additional Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bhavsar KS. Application of wavelet on quasi-periodic physiologic signals. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Wasik JF. How to Get Financial Advice in Your Best Interest. New York Times. 2017;:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Obesity
AbbreviationBMC Obes.
ISSN (online)2052-9538
Scope

Other styles