How to format your references using the BMC Obesity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Obesity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cyranoski D. Fresh horizons South Korea. Nature. 2002;420:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lee S-J, Masliah E. Neurodegeneration: Aggregates feel the strain. Nature. 2015;522:296–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tarlinton RE, Meers J, Young PR. Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature. 2006;442:79–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schmidt DN, Thierstein HR, Bollmann J, Schiebel R. Abiotic forcing of plankton evolution in the Cenozoic. Science. 2004;303:207–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Islam MR, Chhetri AB, Khan MM. The Greening of Petroleum Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Bai Q, Fukuta N, editors. Advances in Practical Multi-Agent Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Spiotta M, Bottrighi A, Giordano L, Theseider Dupré D. Conformance Analysis of the Execution of Clinical Guidelines with Basic Medical Knowledge and Clinical Terminology. In: Miksch S, Riaño D, ten Teije A, editors. Knowledge Representation for Health Care: 6th International Workshop, KR4HC 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 21, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 62–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Obesity.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Science Fatigue Keeps Us Clinging To Bad Health Habits. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/science-fatigue-keeps-us-clinging-bad-health-habits/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Army Maintenance: More Effective Implementation of Maintenance Expenditure Limits Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chima-Okereke O. The distinct VPS35 mutant, env1, exhibits unique protein mislocalization and processing phenotype. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. Back Home, Crashing on a Couch and Dreaming of Rap Greatness. New York Times. 2016;:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Obesity
AbbreviationBMC Obes.
ISSN (online)2052-9538
Scope

Other styles