How to format your references using the BMC Obesity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Obesity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Holt R. US election: Politicians should think like scientists. Nature. 2012;489:493–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shoubridge EA, Wai T. Medicine. Sidestepping mutational meltdown. Science. 2008;319:914–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Spracklen DV, Arnold SR, Taylor CM. Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests. Nature. 2012;489:282–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pagnussat GC, Alandete-Saez M, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V. Auxin-dependent patterning and gamete specification in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Science. 2009;324:1684–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Handler A, Kennelly J, Peacock N, editors. Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes: The Evidence from Population-Based Interventions. 1st edition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cress U, Feinkohl I, Jirschitzka J, Kimmerle J. Mass Collaboration as Coevolution of Cognitive and Social Systems. In: Cress U, Moskaliuk J, Jeong H, editors. Mass Collaboration and Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 85–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Obesity.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Solar Plane to Attempt Round-the-World Flight. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/solar-plane-attempt-round-world-flight/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Management Improvements Are Essential to VA’s Second Effort to Replace Its Outpatient Scheduling System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Carlson L. From Albéniz to Arbós: The orchestration of “Iberia.” Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chapman MM. G.M.’s Tentative Labor Deal Is Set for Approval by Union Leaders. New York Times. 2015;:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Obesity
AbbreviationBMC Obes.
ISSN (online)2052-9538
Scope

Other styles