How to format your references using the BMC Obesity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Obesity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Scadden DT. The stem-cell niche as an entity of action. Nature. 2006;441:1075–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mondal N, Parvin JD. DNA topoisomerase IIalpha is required for RNA polymerase II transcription on chromatin templates. Nature. 2001;413:435–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mal NK, Fujiwara M, Tanaka Y. Photocontrolled reversible release of guest molecules from coumarin-modified mesoporous silica. Nature. 2003;421:350–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. King EM, Stellmach S, Noir J, Hansen U, Aurnou JM. Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems. Nature. 2009;457:301–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kramer-Moore D, Moore M. Destructive Myths in Family Therapy. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Radespiel R, Niehuis R, Kroll N, Behrends K, editors. Advances in Simulation of Wing and Nacelle Stall: Results of the Closing Symposium of the DFG Research Unit FOR 1066, December 1-2, 2014, Braunschweig, Germany. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. van de Poel I, Nihlén Fahlquist J. Risk and Responsibility. In: Roeser S, Hillerbrand R, Sandin P, Peterson M, editors. Essentials of Risk Theory. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 107–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Obesity.

Blog post
1. Davis J. No Surprise As May Breaks Eighth Global Temperature Record In A Row. IFLScience. 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. USDA Telecommunications: Strong Leadership Needed to Resolve Management Weaknesses, Achieve Savings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Castillo-Garrison EM. Asilomar Leadership Skills Seminar: The career preparation, advancement, and enhancement of women in California community college leadership. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Verdi’s Requiem, in All Its Theatricality and Resonance. New York Times. 2016;:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Obesity
AbbreviationBMC Obes.
ISSN (online)2052-9538
Scope

Other styles