How to format your references using the Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, Green Bank dish may be last of the giants, Nature. 406 (2000) 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.M. Muoio, C.B. Newgard, Biomedicine. Insulin resistance takes a trip through the ER, Science. 306 (2004) 425–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.E. Moritz, C.M. Bitz, E.J. Steig, Dynamics of recent climate change in the Arctic, Science. 297 (2002) 1497–1502.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.K. Ogden, D.L. Fei, N.S. Schilling, Y.F. Ahmed, J. Hwa, D.J. Robbins, G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling, Nature. 456 (2008) 967–970.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.P. Saadoun, Esthetic Soft Tissue Management of Teeth and Implants, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
L. Wang, K. Chen, Y.S. Ong, eds., Advances in Natural Computation: First International Conference, ICNC 2005, Changsha, China, August 27-29, 2005, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-H. Lee, A Comparative Analysis of Foreign Workers and Citizenship in Korea and Germany, in: M. Pohlmann, J. Yang, J.-H. Lee (Eds.), Citizenship and Migration in the Era of Globalization: The Flow of Migrants and the Perception of Citizenship in Asia and Europe, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Snail Consumes Worm With Incredible Efficiency, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loan Insurance Fund, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Luscinski, Best Practices in Adult Online Learning, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Tarnish on the Torch, New York Times. (2016) BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
AbbreviationExp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
ISSN (print)0894-1777
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles