How to format your references using the Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, Funding fears spark Italian protests, Nature. 414 (2001) 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Gweon, L. Schulz, 16-month-olds rationally infer causes of failed actions, Science. 332 (2011) 1524.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.M. Hermans, H. Frauenrath, F. Stellacci, Materials science. Droplets out of equilibrium, Science. 341 (2013) 243–244.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Cavey, M. Rauzi, P.-F. Lenne, T. Lecuit, A two-tiered mechanism for stabilization and immobilization of E-cadherin, Nature. 453 (2008) 751–756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Renaud, K.-H. Kim, M. Cho, Dynamics of Housing in East Asia, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
J. Torbeyns, E. Lehtinen, J. Elen, eds., Describing and Studying Domain-Specific Serious Games, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M.E. Rauktis, B. Kerman, C.M. Phillips, Transitioning into Adulthood: Promoting Youth Engagement, Empowerment, and Interdependence Through Teaming Practices, in: H. Cahalane (Ed.), Contemporary Issues in Child Welfare Practice, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 101–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ancient Aboriginal Stories Preserve History Of A Rise In Sea Level, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Transfer: Constraints Perceived by Federal Laboratory and Agency Officials, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.J. Coleman, Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Underneath the Tire Treads, New York Times. (1972) GREATER NEW YORK AUTOMOBILE SHOWA15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
AbbreviationExp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
ISSN (print)0894-1777
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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