How to format your references using the BMC Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. White T. Paleoanthropology. Early hominids--diversity or distortion? Science. 2003;299:1994–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wong M, Munro S. Membrane trafficking. The specificity of vesicle traffic to the Golgi is encoded in the golgin coiled-coil proteins. Science. 2014;346:1256898.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jop P, Forterre Y, Pouliquen O. A constitutive law for dense granular flows. Nature. 2006;441:727–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Deechongkit S, Nguyen H, Powers ET, Dawson PE, Gruebele M, Kelly JW. Context-dependent contributions of backbone hydrogen bonding to beta-sheet folding energetics. Nature. 2004;430:101–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lee KB. Principles of Microelectromechanical Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Çetin T, Oğuz F, editors. The Political Economy of Regulation in Turkey. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jokinen K, Wilcock G. Modelling User Experience in Human-Robot Interactions. In: Böck R, Bonin F, Campbell N, Poppe R, editors. Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction: Second International Workshop, MA3HMI 2014, Held in Conjunction with INTERSPEECH 2014, Singapore, Singapore, September 14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 45–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Brain Network Linking Alzheimer’s And Schizophrenia Identified. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/brain-network-linking-alzheimers-and-schizophrenia-identified/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Handling of Bid Protests Involving Automatic Data Processing Equipment Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wick HF. Applying Natural Horn Technique to Modern Valved Horn Performance Practice. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. How Johnson Might Balance Ambassadorship and the Jets. New York Times. 2017;:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Education
AbbreviationBMC Med. Educ.
ISSN (online)1472-6920
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Education

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