How to format your references using the BMC Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Joyce GF. The antiquity of RNA-based evolution. Nature. 2002;418:214–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Haldane AG, May RM. Systemic risk in banking ecosystems. Nature. 2011;469:351–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Little AF, van Oppen MJH, Willis BL. Flexibility in algal endosymbioses shapes growth in reef corals. Science. 2004;304:1492–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Peichel CL, Nereng KS, Ohgi KA, Cole BL, Colosimo PF, Buerkle CA, et al. The genetic architecture of divergence between threespine stickleback species. Nature. 2001;414:901–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Welker RW, Nagarajan R, Newberg CE. Contamination and ESD Control in High-Technology Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Dallenbach-Hellweg G. Color Atlas of Histopathology of the Cervix Uteri. 2nd edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chortaras A, Stamou G, Stafylopatis A. Adaptation of Weighted Fuzzy Programs. In: Kollias S, Stafylopatis A, Duch W, Oja E, editors. Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2006: 16th International Conference, Athens, Greece, September 10-14, 2006. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Why Tropical Birds Have Fewer Chicks Than Temperate Birds. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/why-tropical-birds-have-fewer-chicks-temperate-birds/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfer: Implementation Status of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Vu MK. Reducing mental health provider burnout through wellness: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Mileposts, With South Africa Around the Bend. New York Times. 2009;:SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Education
AbbreviationBMC Med. Educ.
ISSN (online)1472-6920
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Education

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