How to format your references using the BMC Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pokrovsky V. Science policy. Russia targets Western ties. Science. 2015;349:224–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wells JA, Kossiakoff AA. Cell biology. New tricks for an old dimer. Science. 2014;344:703–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stebe KJ, Lewandowski E, Ghosh M. Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials. Science. 2009;325:159–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Searle IR, Men AE, Laniya TS, Buzas DM, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Carroll BJ, et al. Long-distance signaling in nodulation directed by a CLAVATA1-like receptor kinase. Science. 2003;299:109–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Blackford R, Schüklenk U. 50 Great Myths about Atheism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Kirkwood DH. Semi-solid Processing of Alloys. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Angelopoulos S, Lucarelli G, Nguyen KT. Primal-Dual and Dual-Fitting Analysis of Online Scheduling Algorithms for Generalized Flow Time Problems. In: Bansal N, Finocchi I, editors. Algorithms - ESA 2015: 23rd Annual European Symposium, Patras, Greece, September 14-16, 2015, Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA Plans Mission To Europa. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. America COMPETES Acts: Overall Appropriations Have Increased and Have Mainly Funded Existing Federal Research Entities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wenzel AB. Learning the culture of teaching: A middle school perspective. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. A No. 2 Theater Company Grabs the State Spotlight. New York Times. 2011;:A25B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Gastroenterology
AbbreviationBMC Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)1471-230X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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