How to format your references using the BMC Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hemingway J. Malaria: Fifteen years of interventions. Nature. 2015;526:198–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Long JL, Chhetri DK. Tissue engineering. Restoring voice. Science. 2015;350:908–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Green HW 2nd, Chen W-P, Brudzinski MR. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere. Nature. 2010;467:828–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li Q, Chen M, Perc M, Iqbal A, Abbott D. Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2949.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kulaev IS, Vagabov VM, Kulakovskaya TV. The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Mytum H, editor. Global Perspectives on Archaeological Field Schools: Constructions of Knowledge and Experience. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kavousifard A, Samet H. A Novel Method Based on Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network for Power System Load Prediction. In: Ryżko D, Rybiński H, Gawrysiak P, Kryszkiewicz M, editors. Emerging Intelligent Technologies in Industry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Mental Health Is A Complex, Interactive Dance Of Nature And Nurture. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Importation Into the U.S. of Automobiles That Do Not Conform With Emission Requirements]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. George KA. Housing adequacy and civic engagement in Los Angeles County. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. B Capital Group Names Start-Up Star Its Chairman. New York Times. 2017;:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Gastroenterology
AbbreviationBMC Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)1471-230X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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