How to format your references using the BMC Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Goldston D. In which we say goodbye. Nature. 2009;462:25.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dye C, Raviglione M. Perspective: Weigh all TB risks. Nature. 2013;502:S13.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Back JM, McCue SW, Moroney TJ. Including nonequilibrium interface kinetics in a continuum model for melting nanoscaled particles. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7066.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Parks SE, Cusano DA, Stimpert AK, Weinrich MT, Friedlaender AS, Wiley DN. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chevallier J, Ielpo F. The Economics of Commodity Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Poovendran R, Saad W, editors. Decision and Game Theory for Security: 5th International Conference, GameSec 2014, Los Angeles, CA, USA, November 6-7, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Conrad K. Irreducible Values of Polynomials: A Non-Analogy. In: Geer G van der, Moonen B, Schoof R, editors. Number Fields and Function Fields—Two Parallel Worlds. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2005. p. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Monkey Observed Grieving For Dying Mate After Heartbreaking Accident. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/monkey-observed-grieving-dying-mate-after-heartbreaking-accident/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Efforts to Strengthen the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Terrell S. How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barker K, Shah PZ, Goldstein J, Silver-Greenberg J. From Class Clown to Manhattan Bomb Suspect. New York Times. 2016;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Gastroenterology
AbbreviationBMC Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)1471-230X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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