How to format your references using the BMC Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lichtenthaler SF. Cell biology. Sheddase gets guidance. Science. 2012;335:179–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Libuda DE, Winston F. Amplification of histone genes by circular chromosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 2006;443:1003–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sun JC, Beilke JN, Lanier LL. Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells. Nature. 2009;457:557–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bian Y, Ye M, Wang C, Cheng K, Song C, Dong M, et al. Global screening of CK2 kinase substrates by an integrated phosphoproteomics workflow. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Worth SM. The Association Guide to Going Global. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Rugini E, Baldoni L, Muleo R, Sebastiani L, editors. The Olive Tree Genome. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. López-López EA, Hernández-Gallegos MA, Cornejo-Mazón M, Hernández-Sánchez H. Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles. In: Hernández-Sánchez H, Gutiérrez-López GF, editors. Food Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 59–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Spacing Of Letters, Not Shape Of Letters, Slightly Increases Reading Speed Of Those With Dyslexia. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Planning: SSA’s February 1989 Report on Computer Modernization Is Incomplete. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. O’Grady CR. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Green LV. Beds of State. New York Times. 2006;:1413.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Gastroenterology
AbbreviationBMC Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)1471-230X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles