How to format your references using the BMC Family Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Family Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gong JP. Materials science. Materials both tough and soft. Science. 2014;344:161–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Summers MF, Hrabowski FA 3rd. Diversity. Preparing minority scientists and engineers. Science. 2006;311:1870–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bilham R, Gaur VK, Molnar P. Earthquakes. Himalayan seismic hazard. Science. 2001;293:1442–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Saikawa Y, Hashimoto K, Nakata M, Yoshihara M, Nagai K, Ida M, et al. Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus. Nature. 2004;429:363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Imbriale WA. Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Lorenzi NM, Ash JS, Einbinder J, McPhee W, Einbinder L, editors. Transforming Health Care Through Information. Second Edition. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Harper RHR. The Metaphysics of Communications Overload. In: Murray-Smith R, editor. Mobile Social Signal Processing: First International Workshop, MSSP 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, September 7, 2010, Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 42–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Family Practice.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Mushrooms Could Extend Battery Life. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/mushrooms-could-extend-battery-life/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Exchange Programs: Inventory of International Educational, Cultural, and Training Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reyes JM. A support group for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Returning for Friendship, and Drums. New York Times. 2017;:SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Family Practice
AbbreviationBMC Fam. Pract.
ISSN (online)1471-2296
ScopeFamily Practice

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