How to format your references using the BMC Family Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Family Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fujishima A. Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (I). Science. 2003;301:1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Silver PG, Holt WE. The mantle flow field beneath western North America. Science. 2002;295:1054–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Goldberg P, Berna F, Macphail RI. Comment on “DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America.” Science. 2009;325:148; author reply 148.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sandoval H, Thiagarajan P, Dasgupta SK, Schumacher A, Prchal JT, Chen M, et al. Essential role for Nix in autophagic maturation of erythroid cells. Nature. 2008;454:232–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. DiGrado BD, Thorp GA. The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Yonazi JJ, Sedoyeka E, Ariwa E, El-Qawasmeh E, editors. e-Technologies and Networks for Development: First International Conference, ICeND 2011, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, August 3-5, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chu H, Wang J-J, Spearman P. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Gag and Host Vesicular Trafficking Pathways. In: Spearman P, Freed EO, editors. HIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Family Practice.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Bees Found To Be Living Just Meters From The Top Of An Active Volcano. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bees-found-to-be-living-just-meters-from-the-top-of-an-active-volcano/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Special Education: Estimates of Handicapped Indian Preschoolers and Sufficiency of Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hakes CJ. Off -campus work and its relationship to students’ experiences with faculty using the College Student Experiences Questionnaire. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Rangers Fans Had Something to Prove. New York Times. 2011;:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Family Practice
AbbreviationBMC Fam. Pract.
ISSN (online)1471-2296
ScopeFamily Practice

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