How to format your references using the BMC Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Laundré JW. Ecology. How large predators manage the cost of hunting. Science. 2014;346:33–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bakker HJ, Nienhuys H-K. Delocalization of protons in liquid water. Science. 2002;297:587–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Weiner S, Sagi I, Addadi L. Structural biology. Choosing the crystallization path less traveled. Science. 2005;309:1027–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Qi J, Asano T, Jinno M, Matsui K, Atsumi K, Sakagami Y, et al. Characterization of a Phytophthora mating hormone. Science. 2005;309:1828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gutiérrez Í, Meléndez J, Hernández E. Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2007.
An edited book
1. Klingebiel S, Mahn T, Negre M, editors. The Fragmentation of Aid: Concepts, Measurements and Implications for Development Cooperation. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tal MC, Iwasaki A. Autophagy and Innate Recognition Systems. In: Levine B, Yoshimori T, Deretic V, editors. Autophagy in Infection and Immunity. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 107–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
1. Felton J. Scientists Grow Flatworm With Two Heads Instead Of Tail. IFLScience. 2017. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: DOT Should Better Manage Its Hazardous Materials Inspection Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chalmers TD. The social context of advertising: Authenticity, social identity, and reflected appraisals. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Tomasky M. A Tax Revolt in Kansas. New York Times. 2017;:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationBMC Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1472-6890
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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