How to format your references using the BMC Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Greenberg RA. Cancer. BRCA1, everything but the RING? Science. 2011;334:459–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Davis CC, Wurdack KJ. Host-to-parasite gene transfer in flowering plants: phylogenetic evidence from Malpighiales. Science. 2004;305:676–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Plata G, Henry CS, Vitkup D. Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria. Nature. 2015;517:369–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nagpal P, Lindquist NC, Oh S-H, Norris DJ. Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials. Science. 2009;325:594–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mishra AR. Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Patel VV, Burger E, Brown CW, editors. Spine Trauma: Surgical Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wagner A. Using Games to Learn Games: Game-Theory Representations as a Source for Guided Social Learning. In: Agah A, Cabibihan J-J, Howard AM, Salichs MA, He H, editors. Social Robotics: 8th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Kansas City, MO, USA, November 1-3, 2016 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. A Brain-Eating Amoeba Has Infected A Person In The US. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/a-brain-eating-amoeba-has-infected-a-person-in-the-us/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: More Information Could Help Education Determine the Extent to Which Eligible Servicemembers Serving on Active Duty Benefited from Relief Provided by Lenders and Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bai H. High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chira S. Cosby Is the Man on Trial. But So Are Power Dynamics. New York Times. 2017;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationBMC Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1472-6890
ScopeHistology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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