How to format your references using the BMC Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grier DG. A revolution in optical manipulation. Nature. 2003;424:810–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hegde D, Mowery DC. Research funding. Politics and funding in the U.S. public biomedical R&D system. Science. 2008;322:1797–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Blöchliger N, Vitalis A, Caflisch A. High-resolution visualisation of the states and pathways sampled in molecular dynamics simulations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6264.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ou Y, Zhu X, Jokubavicius V, Yakimova R, Mortensen NA, Syväjärvi M, et al. Broadband antireflection and light extraction enhancement in fluorescent SiC with nanodome structures. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4662.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ushakov I. Probabilistic Reliability Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Baldacchino G, Niles D, editors. Island Futures: Conservation and Development Across the Asia-Pacific Region. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kern TS. Animal Models of Diabetic Retinopathy. In: Penn JS, editor. Retinal and Choroidal Angiogenesis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Antarctic Glacier Collapse Means Sea-Level Rise Now ‘Unstoppable.’ IFLScience. 2014.‘unstoppable’/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Media Contracts: Activities and Financial Obligations for Seven Federal Departments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Day C. Medication-assisted treatment: Education for those who assist in the treatment of substance use disorders curriculum development. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017;:C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationBMC Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1472-6890
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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