How to format your references using the BMC Bioinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Bioinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hipps KW. Molecular electronics. It’s all about contacts. Science. 2001;294:536–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Premkumar LS, Ahern GP. Induction of vanilloid receptor channel activity by protein kinase C. Nature. 2000;408:985–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Liu S-M, Chen W, Wang J. Distinguishing between cancer cell differentiation and resistance induced by all-trans retinoic acid using transcriptional profiles and functional pathway analysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5577.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fielding EJ, Lundgren PR, Bürgmann R, Funning GJ. Shallow fault-zone dilatancy recovery after the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran. Nature. 2009;458:64–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mackevičius V. Introduction to Stochastic Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
1. Gault D. Beginning Oracle Application Express 4. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Calvo-Zaragoza J, de la Higuera C, Oncina J. Computing the Expected Edit Distance from a String to a PFA. In: Han Y-S, Salomaa K, editors. Implementation and Application of Automata: 21st International Conference, CIAA 2016, Seoul, South Korea, July 19-22, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Bioinformatics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Man Fails To Get ‘Eaten Alive’ By Anaconda. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/man-fails-get-eaten-alive-anaconda-planned/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of Certain Problems in the Cosmetology Accrediting Commission. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Razzaghi M. Quantum Tunneling in Hydride Transfer Reactions in Solution. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Army Diet Found Lacking. New York Times. 2003;:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Bioinformatics
AbbreviationBMC Bioinformatics
ISSN (online)1471-2105
ScopeBiochemistry
Molecular Biology
Structural Biology
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

Other styles