How to format your references using the Blood Purification citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Blood Purification. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nimis PL: A tale from Bioutopia. Nature 2001;413:21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bayraktar OA, Doe CQ: Combinatorial temporal patterning in progenitors expands neural diversity. Nature 2013;498:449–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Afek I, Ambar O, Silberberg Y: High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light. Science 2010;328:879–881.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka S, Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Cai F, Heinhorst S, Cannon GC, et al.: Atomic-level models of the bacterial carboxysome shell. Science 2008;319:1083–1086.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens BA, Roediger E: Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Hilber N: Computational Methods for Quantitative Finance: Finite Element Methods for Derivative Pricing. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Marder L, Pérez Herranz V: Electrodialysis Control Parameters; in Moura Bernardes A, Siqueira Rodrigues MA, Zoppas Ferreira J (eds): Electrodialysis and Water Reuse: Novel Approaches. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014, pp 25–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Blood Purification.

Blog post
Fang J: Fish Can’t Have Sex With All That Traffic Noise. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: States’ Collection and Use of Funds for Wireless Enhanced 911 Services. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cetin B: Leaching of metals from high carbon fly ash mixed soils 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J: Feeling Blah? There’s a Book About That. New York Times 2017;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBlood Purification
AbbreviationBlood Purif.
ISSN (print)0253-5068
ISSN (online)1421-9735
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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