How to format your references using the Biotechnology for Biofuels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology for Biofuels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McNab BK. Metabolism: ecology shapes bird bioenergetics. Nature. 2003;426:620–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schwarzman MR, Wilson MP. Science and regulation. New science for chemicals policy. Science. 2009;326:1065–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Richard D, Clanet C, Quéré D. Contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature. 2002;417:811.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ramos D, Gil-Santos E, Malvar O, Llorens JM, Pini V, San Paulo A, et al. Silicon nanowires: where mechanics and optics meet at the nanoscale. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sharma YC. A Guide to the Economic Removal of Metals from Aqueous Solutions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Goulletquer P. Biodiversity in the Marine Environment. Gros P, Boeuf G, Weber J, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bretos I, Calzada ML. Approaches Towards the Minimisation of Toxicity in Chemical Solution Deposition Processes of Lead-Based Ferroelectric Thin Films. In: Ricote J, editor. Multifunctional Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Materials: Processing and Properties. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 145–216.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology for Biofuels.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Event Horizon Telescope To Begin Most Detailed Observation Of A Black Hole in April [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Program Funding by State Relative to Enplanements for Selected Years. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Oct. Report No.: RCED-94-7FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Williams RN. Inclusive Classrooms: A Basic Qualitative Study of K-8 Urban Charter School Teachers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. Selling Us a Better Vision of Ourselves. New York Times. 2017 Sep 12;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology for Biofuels
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Biofuels
ISSN (online)1754-6834
General Energy
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles