How to format your references using the Biosurface and Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosurface and Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Renton, Has the Higgs boson been discovered?, Nature. 428 (2004) 141–144.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Wang, H.G. Dohlman, Pheromone signaling mechanisms in yeast: a prototypical sex machine, Science. 306 (2004) 1508–1509.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Fuchs, D. Sornette, S. Thurner, Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6526.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. von Grotthuss, L.S. Wyrwicz, J. Pas, L. Rychlewski, Predicting protein structures accurately, Science. 304 (2004) 1597–9; author reply 1597-9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Chen, X. Wang, X. Li, Fundamentals of Complex Networks, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2014.
An edited book
C. Tortajada, ed., Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Change: The Roles of Infrastructure and Governance in the Context of Adaptation, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Ligtvoet, P.M. Herder, Simulation and Gaming for Understanding the Complexity of Cooperation in Industrial Networks, in: O. Hammami, D. Krob, J.-L. Voirin (Eds.), Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management CSDM 2011, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 81–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosurface and Biotribology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, A Genetic Test Could Predict Future Troubles For Kidney Donors – Why Not Use It?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: Federal Action Could Help Transit Agencies Address Security Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.E. Belflower, The relationship between demographic and employment variables of job satisfaction among emergency nurses, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Submarine Appeal In European Court, New York Times. (2005) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosurface and Biotribology
AbbreviationBiosurf. Biotribol.
ISSN (print)2405-4518

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