How to format your references using the Biosurface and Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosurface and Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Holden, MIDDLE SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT: Asia Stays on Top, U.S. in Middle in New Global Rankings, Science. 290 (2000) 1866.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Kawasaki, K. Taira, Hes1 is a target of microRNA-23 during retinoic-acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells, Nature. 423 (2003) 838–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Gridi-Papp, A.S. Rand, M.J. Ryan, Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog, Nature. 441 (2006) 38.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.I. McNeil, R.J. Matear, R.M. Key, J.L. Bullister, J.L. Sarmiento, Anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean based on the global chlorofluorocarbon data set, Science. 299 (2003) 235–239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Lunn, HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
R.C. Dewar, C.H. Lineweaver, R.K. Niven, K. Regenauer-Lieb, eds., Beyond the Second Law: Entropy Production and Non-equilibrium Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Bellout, F. Bloom, Attractors for Incompressible Bipolar and Non-Newtonian Flows: Bounded Domains and Space Periodic Problems, in: F. Bloom (Ed.), Incompressible Bipolar and Non-Newtonian Viscous Fluid Flow, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 347–433.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosurface and Biotribology.

Blog post
B. Taub, Indonesian Forest Fires Expected To Generate Increase In Human-Animal Conflicts, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Education’s Library: Actions Needed to Improve Its Usefulness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Sugg, Small Graces: Mapping a Route of Beauty to the Heart of the World, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. Hernández, From His Father’s Decline, de Blasio ‘Learned What Not to Do,’ New York Times. (2013) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosurface and Biotribology
AbbreviationBiosurf. Biotribol.
ISSN (print)2405-4518

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