How to format your references using the Biosurface and Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosurface and Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
U. Lindenberger, Human cognitive aging: corriger la fortune?, Science. 346 (2014) 572–578.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Rohrbach, M.W. Schmidt, Redox freezing and melting in the Earth’s deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling, Nature. 472 (2011) 209–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.G. Begley, A.M. Buchan, U. Dirnagl, Robust research: Institutions must do their part for reproducibility, Nature. 525 (2015) 25–27.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Minniti, J. Borissova, M. Rejkuba, D.R. Alves, K.H. Cook, K.C. Freeman, Kinematic evidence for an old stellar halo in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Science. 301 (2003) 1508–1510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Rigo, Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 2, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
C.R. Bowen, Modern Piezoelectric Energy-Harvesting Materials, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Contassot-Vivier, T. Jost, S. Vialle, Impact of Asynchronism on GPU Accelerated Parallel Iterative Computations, in: K. Jónasson (Ed.), Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 10th International Conference, PARA 2010, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 6-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosurface and Biotribology.

Blog post
D. Andrew, From Medical Treatment To Diet And Lifestyle Choice: How To Spot Unreliable Health Research, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Hourly Fees Paid by Various Federal Agencies to Private Attorneys for Legal Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Garyan, Converging origins: Never forget what happened in the future, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, All Dollars, All the Time For Harried School Boards, New York Times. (2005) 14LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosurface and Biotribology
AbbreviationBiosurf. Biotribol.
ISSN (print)2405-4518

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