How to format your references using the Biosurface and Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosurface and Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Lang, Tough sell, Nature. 446 (2007) 830.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.H. Gardner, F. Correa, Plant science. How plants see the invisible, Science. 335 (2012) 1451–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.R. Swain, G. Vasisht, G. Tinetti, The presence of methane in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet, Nature. 452 (2008) 329–331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Kaeberlein, K.K. Steffen, D. Hu, N. Dang, E.O. Kerr, M. Tsuchiya, S. Fields, B.K. Kennedy, Comment on “HST2 mediates SIR2-independent life-span extension by calorie restriction,” Science. 312 (2006) 1312; author reply 1312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Ralph, P. Graham, MMS: Technologies, Usage and Business Models, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2004.
An edited book
I. Nishizaki, M. Sakawa, eds., Cooperative and Noncooperative Multi-Level Programming, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. McIver, L. Meinicke, C. Morgan, Security, Probability and Nearly Fair Coins in the Cryptographers’ Café, in: A. Cavalcanti, D.R. Dams (Eds.), FM 2009: Formal Methods: Second World Congress, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, November 2-6, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 41–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosurface and Biotribology.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Presidential Hopeful Has A Rather ... Interesting Theory On Why The Pyramids Were Built, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Business Systems Modernization: DOD Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.H. Jorge, Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Walker and UConn a Long Way From One-and-Done, New York Times. (2011) B20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosurface and Biotribology
AbbreviationBiosurf. Biotribol.
ISSN (print)2405-4518

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