How to format your references using the BioMetals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMetals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart W (2007) Applied physics. The power to set you free. Science 317:55–56
A journal article with 2 authors
Roelofs J, Van Haastert PJ (2001) Genes lost during evolution. Nature 411:1013–1014
A journal article with 3 authors
Peñalver E, Grimaldi DA, Delclòs X (2006) Early Cretaceous spider web with its prey. Science 312:1761
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang L, Yu P, Zhao L, et al (2014) B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction. Sci Rep 4:5184

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building (2014) Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Buckley JJ (2008) Monte Carlo Methods in Fuzzy Optimization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Behnke S, Berg D (2013) Transcranial Ultrasonography in Movement Disorders. In: Nahab FB, Hattori N (eds) Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 71–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMetals.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) This Ice Shelf Breaking From The Inside Out In West Antarctica Is Not Good News. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA’s Air Traffic Control Modernization Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhou Y (2010) Resource Management in Wireless Networks: Queue Management and Scheduling in Mesh Networks and Multi-Access Control in Internetworking Systems. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2004) World Briefing | Asia: Putin Indicates Kurile Deal Is Not Likely Soon. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Roelofs and Van Haastert 2001; Stewart 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roelofs and Van Haastert 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMetals
ISSN (print)0966-0844
ISSN (online)1572-8773
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Metals and Alloys

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