How to format your references using the BioMetals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMetals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stefánsson K (2011) Genome-sequencing anniversary. An anniversary party. Science 331:691
A journal article with 2 authors
Wahl ER, Morrill C (2010) Climate change. Toward understanding and predicting monsoon patterns. Science 328:437–438
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee H, Zones SI, Davis ME (2003) A combustion-free methodology for synthesizing zeolites and zeolite-like materials. Nature 425:385–388
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Okabe M, Imai T, Kurusu M, et al (2001) Translational repression determines a neuronal potential in Drosophila asymmetric cell division. Nature 411:94–98

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG (2013) Funding Atlas 2012. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Jin D, Lin S (eds) (2012) Advances in Future Computer and Control Systems: Volume 2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson D, Ayeni O (2009) Avoiding and Managing Complications in ACL Reconstruction. In: Meislin RJ, Halbrecht J (eds) Complications in Knee and Shoulder Surgery: Management and Treatment Options for the Sports Medicine Orthopedist. Springer, London, pp 53–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMetals.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Tortoises Racing to Use Touchscreens. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Space Programs: NASA’s Independent Cost Estimating Capability Needs Improvement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCorkle WB (2005) Tongue, Nib, Block, Bit: Rhetorical Delivery and Technologies of Writing. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2002) Making My Own Music. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stefánsson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wahl and Morrill 2010; Stefánsson 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wahl and Morrill 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Okabe et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMetals
ISSN (print)0966-0844
ISSN (online)1572-8773
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Metals and Alloys

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