How to format your references using the BioMetals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMetals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greengard P (2001) The neurobiology of slow synaptic transmission. Science 294:1024–1030
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato M, Sato K (2011) Degradation of paternal mitochondria by fertilization-triggered autophagy in C. elegans embryos. Science 334:1141–1144
A journal article with 3 authors
Rutberg RL, Hemming SR, Goldstein SL (2000) Reduced North Atlantic Deep Water flux to the glacial Southern Ocean inferred from neodymium isotope ratios. Nature 405:935–938
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shapiro NM, Ritzwoller MH, Molnar P, Levin V (2004) Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropy. Science 305:233–236

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
De Martini D (2013) Success Probability Estimation with Applications to Clinical Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Halpin T, Krogstie J, Nurcan S, et al (eds) (2009) Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling: 10th International Workshop, BPMDS 2009, and 14th International Conference, EMMSAD 2009, held at CAiSE 2009, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 8-9, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Brady LK, Popov V, Koumenis C (2016) In Vivo Interrogation of the Hypoxic Transcriptome of Solid Tumors: Optimizing Hypoxic Probe Labeling with Laser Capture Microdissection for Isolation of High-Quality RNA for Deep Sequencing Analysis. In: Koumenis C, Coussens LM, Giaccia A, Hammond E (eds) Tumor Microenvironment: Study Protocols. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 41–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMetals.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Six Italian Scientists Acquitted of Manslaughter From 2009 Earthquake. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Computer Systems: Continued Oversight Crucial for Air Force’s Requirements Data Bank. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau SJ (2012) A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C (2015) Sigh No More; Let’s Twist and Shout. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greengard 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Greengard 2001; Sato and Sato 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sato and Sato 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shapiro et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMetals
ISSN (print)0966-0844
ISSN (online)1572-8773
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Metals and Alloys

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