How to format your references using the BioMetals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMetals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houghton J (2008) Meetings that changed the world: Madrid 1995: Diagnosing climate change. Nature 455:737–738
A journal article with 2 authors
Blaser MJ, Kirschner D (2007) The equilibria that allow bacterial persistence in human hosts. Nature 449:843–849
A journal article with 3 authors
Chatterjee A, Mitrović M, Fortunato S (2013) Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis. Sci Rep 3:1049
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sullivan RM, Landers M, Yeaman B, Wilson DA (2000) Good memories of bad events in infancy. Nature 407:38–39

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood P (2013) Western Art and the Wider World. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Kogan J, Nicholas C, Teboulle M (eds) (2006) Grouping Multidimensional Data: Recent Advances in Clustering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Merchant TE (2010) Radiation Therapy in the Management of Retinoblastoma. In: Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wilson MW (eds) Retinoblastoma. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 55–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMetals.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Six Foods That Increase Or Decrease Your Risk Of Cancer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) FTS2001: Improving the Revenue Estimation Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward CS (2012) Movin’ Around. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B (2017) Corzine Tries a Wall Street Comeback. New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Houghton 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Blaser and Kirschner 2007; Houghton 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blaser and Kirschner 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Sullivan et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMetals
ISSN (print)0966-0844
ISSN (online)1572-8773
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Metals and Alloys

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