How to format your references using the Biomedical Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bruins HJ: Anthropology. Dating Pharaonic Egypt. Science 328: 1489–1490, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steiner L and Ploegh H: Herman Eisen (1918-2014). Nature 516: 38, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee YK, Lee H and Park JY: Tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers. Sci Rep 4: 4580, 2014.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Akhter S, Bailey BA, Salamon P, Aziz RK and Edwards RA: Applying Shannon’s information theory to bacterial and phage genomes and metagenomes. Sci Rep 3: 1033, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Micouin P: Model-Based Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Zhai Q “jim”: Frozen Section Library: Endocrine Organs. Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Shah VP and Williams RL: Importance of In Vitro Drug Release. In: Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Penetration. Shah VP, Maibach HI and Jenner J (eds.) Springer, New York, NY, pp61–67, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E: Cold Light: Astronomers Go To The Ends Of The Earth To See Cosmic Carbon. IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren KL: Agents of change: A new role for learners in online workplace training., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ: In Rare Move, K.K.R. Picks Possible Heirs To Founders. New York Times: B1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Reports
AbbreviationBiomed. Rep.
ISSN (print)2049-9434
ISSN (online)2049-9442
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine
General Neuroscience
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles