How to format your references using the Biomedical Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Veltman C: Genesis of a high-tech hub. Nature 426: 700–704, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huey RB and Moody WJ: Neuroscience and evolution. Snake sodium channels resist TTX arrest. Science 297: 1289–1290, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elioff MS, Valentini JJ and Chandler DW: Subkelvin cooling NO molecules via “billiard-like” collisions with argon. Science 302: 1940–1943, 2003.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Whitney D, Goltz HC, Thomas CG, Gati JS, Menon RS and Goodale MA: Flexible retinotopy: motion-dependent position coding in the visual cortex. Science 302: 878–881, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nedoma J, Stehlík J, Hlaváček I, Daněk J, Dostálová T and Přečková P: Mathematical and Computational Methods in Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Shafique M: Hardware/Software Architectures for Low-Power Embedded Multimedia Systems. (Henkel J (ed.)). Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Vittal V and Ma F: A Hybrid Dynamic Equivalent Using ANN-Based Boundary Matching Technique. In: Power System Coherency and Model Reduction. Chow JH (ed.) Springer, New York, NY, pp91–118, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E: How A Hacker Could Hijack A Plane From Their Seat. IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Aviation Administration: Key Issues in Ensuring the Efficient Development and Safe Operation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade SW: The complexity of leading in the 21st century: A case study of a successful charter school in an urban school district., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M: Out of Character, but in His Element. New York Times: E7, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Reports
AbbreviationBiomed. Rep.
ISSN (print)2049-9434
ISSN (online)2049-9442
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine
General Neuroscience
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles