How to format your references using the Biomedical Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF: NUCLEAR SCIENCE: DOE Drops Plan to Restart Reactor. Science 290: 1666b–7b, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adamala K and Szostak JW: Nonenzymatic template-directed RNA synthesis inside model protocells. Science 342: 1098–1100, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spillane SM, Kippenberg TJ and Vahala KJ: Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity. Nature 415: 621–623, 2002.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim Y-S, Cho Y-G, Odkhuu D, Park N and Song H-K: A physical organogel electrolyte: characterized by in situ thermo-irreversible gelation and single-ion-predominent conduction. Sci Rep 3: 1917, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI and Hardin JW: Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Adelsberger HH, Kinshuk, Pawlowski JM and Sampson DG: Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training. 2nd ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Eadie MJ and Vajda F: The Older Antiepileptic Drugs. In: Antiepileptic Drugs and Pregnancy: A Guide for Prescribers. Vajda F (ed.) Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp27–66, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Reports.

Blog post
Luntz S: Dramatic Increase In Earth’s Oxidation Levels 2.33 Billion Years Ago. IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: International Aviation: Competition Issues in the U.S.-U.K. Market. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson WC: Spreading the dao, managing mastership, and performing salvation: The life and alchemical teachings of Chen Zhixu., 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J: Alain Mabanckou. New York Times: C18, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Reports
AbbreviationBiomed. Rep.
ISSN (print)2049-9434
ISSN (online)2049-9442
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine
General Neuroscience
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles