How to format your references using the Biologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K. 2005. Save now, don’t pay later. Nature. 433: 336–337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman A. & Perrimon N. 2006. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling. Nature. 444: 230–234.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neves S.R., Ram P.T. & Iyengar R. 2002. G protein pathways. Science. 296: 1636–1639.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hamad I., Delaporte E., Raoult D. & Bittar F. 2014. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis. Sci. Rep. 4: 4478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yin G. 2011. Clinical Trial Design: Bayesian and Frequentist Adaptive Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2016. Creative Intelligence in the 21st Century: Grappling with Enormous Problems and Huge Opportunities. SensePublishers, Rotterdam. X, 276 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner A. 2016. Using Games to Learn Games: Game-Theory Representations as a Source for Guided Social Learning. pp. 42–51. In: Agah A., Cabibihan J.-J., Howard A.M., Salichs M.A., & He H. (eds), Social Robotics: 8th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Kansas City, MO, USA, November 1-3, 2016 Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biologia.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973. Substitution of Shore Leave for Sick Leave. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lastica J.R. 2012. Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Secondary Science Teacher Experiences. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. 2016. Exxon’s Unlikely Enemy. New York Times. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Powell, 2005; Friedman & Perrimon, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman & Perrimon, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Hamad et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiologia
AbbreviationBiologia (Bratisl.)
ISSN (print)0006-3088
ISSN (online)1336-9563
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles