How to format your references using the Biologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts B. 2012. The breakthroughs of 2012. Science. 338: 1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srygley R.B. & Thomas A.L.R. 2002. Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies. Nature. 420: 660–664.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bristow C.S., Bailey S.D. & Lancaster N. 2000. The sedimentary structure of linear sand dunes. Nature. 406: 56–59.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hermosura M.C., Takeuchi H., Fleig A., Riley A.M., Potter B.V., Hirata M. & Penner R. 2000. InsP4 facilitates store-operated calcium influx by inhibition of InsP3 5-phosphatase. Nature. 408: 735–740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong R.A. & Hilton A.C. 2010. Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2007. Oral Surgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XV, 367 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Sosík P. 2014. Active Membranes, Proteins on Membranes, Tissue P Systems: Complexity-Related Issues and Challenges. pp. 40–55. In: Alhazov A., Cojocaru S., Gheorghe M., Rogozhin Y., Rozenberg G., & Salomaa A. (eds), Membrane Computing: 14th International Conference, CMC 2013, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova, August 20-23, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biologia.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1971. Examination of NASA Contract With Boeing. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chapman T.W. 2017. Evaluating the δ13C Value of n-Alkanes as a Recorder of Atmospheric Chemistry. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2016. Forget the Waist; It’s More About the Wrist. New York Times. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alberts, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Srygley & Thomas, 2002; Alberts, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Srygley & Thomas, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hermosura et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiologia
AbbreviationBiologia (Bratisl.)
ISSN (print)0006-3088
ISSN (online)1336-9563
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles