How to format your references using the Biologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Kranendonk M.J. 2011. Geochemistry. Onset of plate tectonics. Science. 333: 413–414.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fine M. & Tchernov D. 2007. Scleractinian coral species survive and recover from decalcification. Science. 315: 1811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polat E.O., Balcı O. & Kocabas C. 2014. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices. Sci. Rep. 4: 6484.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gan X., Clevenson H., Tsai C.-C., Li L. & Englund D. 2013. Nanophotonic filters and integrated networks in flexible 2D polymer photonic crystals. Sci. Rep. 3: 2145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschirhart M. & Bielefeld W. 2012. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., San Francisco.
An edited book
Wolf M.P. 2016. The Normative and the Natural. Springer International Publishing, Cham. XVIII, 342 p. 4 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Megha S., Basu U., Rahman M.H. & Kav N.N.V. 2015. The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants. pp. 93–106. In: Pandey G.K. (eds), Elucidation of Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomics Perspectives, Volume 2, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biologia.

Blog post
Davis J. 2015. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1976. Evaluation of the Department of the Army’s Personnel and Cost Estimates for an Electronics Research and Development Command. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson M.C. 2008. Autonomy in occupational health nursing: An application of Abbott’s Theory of Professions. Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Becker J.O., Apuzzo M. & Goldman A. 2017. Trump Team Met With Lawyer Tied to Kremlin Amid ’16 Race. New York Times. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Van Kranendonk, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fine & Tchernov, 2007; Van Kranendonk, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fine & Tchernov, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiologia
AbbreviationBiologia (Bratisl.)
ISSN (print)0006-3088
ISSN (online)1336-9563
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles