How to format your references using the Biologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Onozuka D. 2014. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan. Sci. Rep. 4: 5157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higley M.J. & Strittmatter S.M. 2010. Neuroscience. Lynx for braking plasticity. Science. 330: 1189–1190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gurley K.A., Rink J.C. & Sánchez Alvarado A. 2008. Beta-catenin defines head versus tail identity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Science. 319: 323–327.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Funao T., Nishida T., Kurashige Y. & Sawada H. 2014. Different suitability of improved irrigation channels as reproductive sites for Cyprininae and Silurus asotus. Sci. Rep. 4: 3588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hossain M.E. 2016. Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Casu B. 2016. Building Societies in the Financial Services Industry. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London. XIX, 101 p. 35 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Allinson R. 2011. The Ethical Producer. pp. 53–73. In: Zsolnai L. (eds), Spirituality and Ethics in Management, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biologia.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2017. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies’ Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zavala M. 2009. Latinos’ attitudes towards receiving mental health services. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh M.W. 2011. Irene Adds To Bad Year For Insurers. New York Times. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Onozuka, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Higley & Strittmatter, 2010; Onozuka, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Higley & Strittmatter, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Funao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiologia
AbbreviationBiologia (Bratisl.)
ISSN (print)0006-3088
ISSN (online)1336-9563
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles