How to format your references using the BioEssays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioEssays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolaja K. 2012. Drug discovery: computer model predicts side effects. Nature 486: 326–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zukor K, He Z. 2011. Regenerative medicine: drawing breath after spinal injury. Nature 475: 177–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Damasceno PF, Engel M, Glotzer SC. 2012. Predictive self-assembly of polyhedra into complex structures. Science 337: 453–7.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lambert F, Delmonte B, Petit JR, Bigler M, et al. 2008. Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature 452: 616–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather PM, Koch M. 2011. Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images.  Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
1. .
2008. Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008.  Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Meharg AA, Zhao F-J. 2012. Biogeochemistry of Arsenic in Paddy Environments.  In Zhao F-J. ed; Arsenic & Rice. Springer Netherlands. p 71–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioEssays.

Blog post
Evans K. 2016. 9 At-Home Remedies That Actually Work. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Alleged Violations of the Kentucky State Plan for Vocational Education and Federal Regulations on Vocational Education by the Kentucky Department of Education.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teater MR. 2009. Reentry and reintegration: A grant proposal for formerly incarcerated women.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. 2016. Disappearing Act: The Art and Fraud of Faking Your Own Death. New York Times : C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioEssays
ISSN (print)0265-9247
ISSN (online)1521-1878
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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