How to format your references using the BioEssays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioEssays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown GC. 2003. Cell biology. NO says yes to mitochondria. Science 299: 838–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mourier T, Jeffares DC. 2003. Eukaryotic intron loss. Science 300: 1393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moser DE, Flowers RM, Hart RJ. 2001. Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago. Science 291: 465–8.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Haug GH, Günther D, Peterson LC, Sigman DM, et al. 2003. Climate and the collapse of Maya civilization. Science 299: 1731–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo D, Morini M, Pallavicini A. 2013. Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding.  Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Korol AV. 2014. Polarization Bremsstrahlung.  Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaiser J, Vernaleken C. 2012. Civil Aviation.  In Stein M,Sandl P. ed; Information Ergonomics: A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation. Springer. p 135–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioEssays.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. New 4D Ultrasound Scans Reveal Effects of Smoking on a Fetus. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Special Education: State and Local-Imposed Requirements Complicate Federal Efforts to Reduce Administrative Burden.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frieberg A. 2008. The Project of Reconciliation: Journalists and religious activists in Polish -German relations, 1956–1972.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M, Walsh MW. 2015. Governor of Puerto Rico Warns of Looming Default Without Bankruptcy Plan. New York Times : B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioEssays
ISSN (print)0265-9247
ISSN (online)1521-1878
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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