How to format your references using the BioEssays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioEssays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poethig RS. 2003. Phase change and the regulation of developmental timing in plants. Science 301: 334–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang D, Lu L. 2007. Anti-correlation of summer/winter monsoons? Nature 450: E7-8; discussion E8-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duderstadt KE, Chuang K, Berger JM. 2011. DNA stretching by bacterial initiators promotes replication origin opening. Nature 478: 209–13.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hughes TP, Anderson KD, Connolly SR, Heron SF, et al. 2018. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science 359: 80–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pachamanova DA, Fabozzi FJ. 2010. Simulation and Optimization in Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1. .
2015. New Ground: Pushing the Boundaries of Studying Informal Learning in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Harts W, Berkeley A, Filippa L, Ross J, et al. 2008. Emergence of New Competition: Alternative Sources of Liquidity. In Colaninno A,Byrne JA,Schwartz RA. ed; Competition in a Consolidating Environment. Springer US. p 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioEssays.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2015. How Do Snakes Climb Trees? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Third Expenditure Plan.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang Y. 2017. Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2005. Justices Reject Appeal in Tobacco Case. New York Times : A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioEssays
ISSN (print)0265-9247
ISSN (online)1521-1878
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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