How to format your references using the Transplant Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplant Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Nelder, Communication: Positive energy, Nature. 498 (2013) 293–295.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Braun-Munzinger, J. Stachel, The quest for the quark-gluon plasma, Nature. 448 (2007) 302–309.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Khudiyev, O. Tobail, M. Bayindir, Tailoring self-organized nanostructured morphologies in kilometer-long polymer fiber, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4864.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Shirt-Ediss, K. Ruiz-Mirazo, F. Mavelli, R.V. Solé, Modelling lipid competition dynamics in heterogeneous protocell populations, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5675.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Samuels, The Trader’s Pendulum, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
B.A. Megrey, E. Moksness, eds., Computers in Fisheries Research, Second Edition, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Cataldo, From Elemental Carbon to Complex Macromolecular Networks in Space, in: P. Ehrenfreund, W. Irvine, T. Owen, L. Becker, J. Blank, J. Brucato, L. Colangeli, S. Derenne, A. Dutrey, D. Despois, A. Lazcano, F. Robert (Eds.), Astrobiology: Future Perspectives, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 97–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplant Immunology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Can A Virtual Reality Game Make You Forget You’re In Pain?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Taken to Fulfill Core Mission and Address Workforce Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Bravo, The development of a viable business plan: Analytics of 30 day readmission rates for hospitals and ancillary services, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, U.S. Judge Voids Puerto Rico’s New Tax on Walmart, New York Times. (2016) B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplant Immunology
AbbreviationTranspl. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0966-3274
Immunology and Allergy

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