How to format your references using the BBA - General Subjects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BBA - General Subjects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Loder, UK advised to step up asteroid hunt, Nature. 407 (2000) 275.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Cosson, M.P. Lutolf, Hydrogel microfluidics for the patterning of pluripotent stem cells, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4462.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Baldo, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer, Nature. 403 (2000) 750–753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.S. Akopyants, N. Kimblin, N. Secundino, R. Patrick, N. Peters, P. Lawyer, D.E. Dobson, S.M. Beverley, D.L. Sacks, Demonstration of genetic exchange during cyclical development of Leishmania in the sand fly vector, Science. 324 (2009) 265–268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Tourlakis, Mathematical Logic, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
G. Baron Esquivias, R. Asteggiano, eds., Cardiac Management of Oncology Patients: Clinical Handbook for Cardio-Oncology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Pezzulo, G. Baldassarre, M.V. Butz, C. Castelfranchi, J. Hoffmann, From Actions to Goals and Vice-Versa: Theoretical Analysis and Models of the Ideomotor Principle and TOTE, in: M.V. Butz, O. Sigaud, G. Pezzulo, G. Baldassarre (Eds.), Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: From Brains to Individual and Social Behavior, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 73–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BBA - General Subjects.

Blog post
R. Andrews, 16th-Century Church Emerges From Dam Reservoir After Drought, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Aviation Administration: Observations on Selected Changes to FAA’s Funding and Budget Structure in the Administration’s Reauthorization Proposal, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.T. Glennie, Examining trust factor relationships in the online business-to-consumer environment, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. Kelly, Performing Miracles, With Wrench and Rivet, New York Times. (2006) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBBA - General Subjects
AbbreviationBiochim. Biophys. Acta Gen. Subj.
ISSN (print)0304-4165
Molecular Biology

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