How to format your references using the BBA - General Subjects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BBA - General Subjects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Boughman, Great expectations, Nature. 447 (2007) 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Pallen, B.W. Wren, Bacterial pathogenomics, Nature. 449 (2007) 835–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.K. Tripathi, K.C. Sahu, R. Govindarajan, Why a falling drop does not in general behave like a rising bubble, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4771.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.A. García, S. Turck-Chièze, S.J. Jiménez-Reyes, J. Ballot, P.L. Pallé, A. Eff-Darwich, S. Mathur, J. Provost, Tracking solar gravity modes: the dynamics of the solar core, Science. 316 (2007) 1591–1593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.E. Gup, Banking and Financial Institutions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
S.C. Satapathy, Y.C. Bhatt, A. Joshi, D.K. Mishra, eds., Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology: ICICT 2015, Volume 1, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S.E. Serrano Oswald, Social Resilience and Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Mutually Fertilizing Potential Seen in a Case Study in Mexico, in: Ú. Oswald Spring, H.G. Brauch, S.E. Serrano Oswald, J. Bennett (Eds.), Regional Ecological Challenges for Peace in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia Pacific, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 57–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BBA - General Subjects.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Tree Diseases Are Good For The Forest, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Update on Federal Matching and Maintenance of Effort Requirements for California, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.R. Brown, Trajectories of parents’ experiences in discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath of middle school bullying, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by, Arts, Briefly; Bolshoi Opens Controversial Opera, New York Times. (2005) E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBBA - General Subjects
AbbreviationBiochim. Biophys. Acta Gen. Subj.
ISSN (print)0304-4165
Molecular Biology

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