How to format your references using the BBA - General Subjects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BBA - General Subjects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. O’Rahilly, Human genetics illuminates the paths to metabolic disease, Nature. 462 (2009) 307–314.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.J. Jerolmack, D. Mohrig, Palaeoclimatology: formation of Precambrian sediment ripples, Nature. 436 (2005) E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Chaudhuri, S.H. Parekh, D.A. Fletcher, Reversible stress softening of actin networks, Nature. 445 (2007) 295–298.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Noggle, H.-L. Fung, A. Gore, H. Martinez, K.C. Satriani, R. Prosser, K. Oum, D. Paull, S. Druckenmiller, M. Freeby, E. Greenberg, K. Zhang, R. Goland, M.V. Sauer, R.L. Leibel, D. Egli, Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state, Nature. 478 (2011) 70–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.R. Krause, Leading with Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
J. van Leeuwen, A. Muscholl, D. Peleg, J. Pokorný, B. Rumpe, eds., SOFSEM 2010: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 36th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic, January 23-29, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Jalan, F.M. Atay, J. Jost, Inferring Global Synchrony from Local Symbolic Dynamics, in: S. Banerjee, L. Rondoni (Eds.), Applications of Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in Science and Engineering - Vol. 3, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 161–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BBA - General Subjects.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, DNA Reveals A New History Of The First Australians, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Health Information: HHS Needs to Strengthen Security and Privacy Guidance and Oversight, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Han, Mechanistic Consequences of Cardiac Oxidative Stress, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, Man Arrested in Strangling of a Jogger in Queens, New York Times. (2017) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBBA - General Subjects
AbbreviationBiochim. Biophys. Acta Gen. Subj.
ISSN (print)0304-4165
Molecular Biology

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