How to format your references using the Autonomous Robots citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Autonomous Robots. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savolainen, O. (2011). Evolution. The genomic basis of local climatic adaptation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6052), 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodriguez, A., & Laio, A. (2014). Machine learning. Clustering by fast search and find of density peaks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6191), 1492–1496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asaadi, N., Ribe, N. M., & Sobouti, F. (2011). Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell. Nature, 473(7348), 501–504.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vandenkoornhuyse, P., Baldauf, S. L., Leyval, C., Straczek, J., & Young, J. P. W. (2002). Extensive fungal diversity in plant roots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5562), 2051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. (2014). Energy Materials 2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yin, Y. (2011). Data Mining: Concepts, Methods and Applications in Management and Engineering Design. (I. Kaku, J. Tang, & J. Zhu, Eds.) (1st ed.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Scaradavou, A. (2014). Maternal HLA Typing and Cord Blood Unit Choice. In K. Ballen (Ed.), Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation (pp. 49–58). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Autonomous Robots.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 17). John Oliver Hilariously Interviews Stephen Hawking. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Aviation Safety: Additional Oversight Planning by FAA Could Enhance Safety Risk Management (No. GAO-14-516). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, G. (2013). Religious/spiritual beliefs and practices of Asian/Asian American mental health professionals & students and the impact on treatment (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, March 25). Can’t Play by the Rules? It’s Fine by Mr. Monopoly. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savolainen 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Rodriguez and Laio 2014; Savolainen 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rodriguez and Laio 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Vandenkoornhuyse et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAutonomous Robots
AbbreviationAuton. Robots
ISSN (print)0929-5593
ISSN (online)1573-7527
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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