How to format your references using the Autonomous Robots citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Autonomous Robots. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hatfull, G. F. (2002). Microbiology. A tail of two specifi-cities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5562), 2031–2032.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chhowalla, M., & Amaratunga, G. A. (2000). Thin films of fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles with ultra-low friction and wear. Nature, 407(6801), 164–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christensen, U. R., Holzwarth, V., & Reiners, A. (2009). Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars. Nature, 457(7226), 167–169.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Williams, T. F., Mirando, A. C., Wilkinson, B., Francklyn, C. S., & Lounsbury, K. M. (2013). Secreted Threonyl-tRNA synthetase stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Scientific reports, 3, 1317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kampen, T. U. (2010). Low Molecular Weight Organic Semiconductors. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bank, R., Holst, M., Widlund, O., & Xu, J. (Eds.). (2013). Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XX (Vol. 91). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lusk, E. (2009). Using MPI to Implement Scalable Libraries. In M. Ropo, J. Westerholm, & J. Dongarra (Eds.), Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface: 16th European PVM/MPI Users’ Group Meeting, Espoo, Finland, September 7-10, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 6–6). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Autonomous Robots.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 30). Lack Of ‘Dark Matter’ In Early Galaxies Perplexes Astronomers. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Space Station: Impact of the Expanded Russian Role on Funding and Research (No. NSIAD-94-220). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White, J. (2014). Support group for family caregivers of Alzheimer’s patients: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, September 2). State Pension Fund Faces Shortfall, Candidate Says. New York Times, p. A30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hatfull 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chhowalla and Amaratunga 2000; Hatfull 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chhowalla and Amaratunga 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAutonomous Robots
AbbreviationAuton. Robots
ISSN (print)0929-5593
ISSN (online)1573-7527
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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