How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Primary Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Primary Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu S (2012) Astronomy. Brown-dwarf origins. Science (New York, NY) 337, 43–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaffer CL, Weinberg RA (2011) A perspective on cancer cell metastasis. Science (New York, NY) 331, 1559–1564.
A journal article with 3 authors
Homer H, Gui L, Carroll J (2009) A spindle assembly checkpoint protein functions in prophase I arrest and prometaphase progression. Science (New York, NY) 326, 991–994.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hirayama J, Sahar S, Grimaldi B, Tamaru T, Takamatsu K, Nakahata Y, Sassone-Corsi P (2007) CLOCK-mediated acetylation of BMAL1 controls circadian function. Nature 450, 1086–1090.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bunker G, Thomson D (2006) ‘Delivering Utility Computing.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK)
An edited book
Gilbert BR (Ed) (2015) ‘Ultrasound of the Male Genitalia.’ (Springer: New York, NY)
A chapter in an edited book
Parret H (2012) From the Enquiry (1757) to the Fourth Kritisches Wäldchen (1769): Burke and Herder on the Division of the Senses. ‘The Science of Sensibility: Reading Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry’. (Eds K Vermeir, M Funk Deckard) International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d’histoire des idées. pp. 91–106. (Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Primary Health.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Blue Galaxy Could Hold Clues To The Origin Of The Universe. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) FAA Budget Policies and Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office, GAO-04-841R. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scaringe JG (2010) An investigation into the faculty development practices in chiropractic education programs. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Passengers Granted Same Right as Drivers. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basu 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Chaffer and Weinberg 2011; Basu 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chaffer and Weinberg 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hirayama et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Primary Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Prim. Health
ISSN (print)1448-7527
ISSN (online)1836-7399
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles