How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Primary Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Primary Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaxter M (2010) Genetics. Revealing the dark matter of the genome. Science (New York, NY) 330, 1758–1759.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin OY, Hosken DJ (2003) The evolution of reproductive isolation through sexual conflict. Nature 423, 979–982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye J, Kimble HJ, Katori H (2008) Quantum state engineering and precision metrology using state-insensitive light traps. Science (New York, NY) 320, 1734–1738.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakatsuka N, Yang K-A, Abendroth JM, Cheung KM, Xu X, Yang H, Zhao C, Zhu B, Rim YS, Yang Y, Weiss PS, Stojanović MN, Andrews AM (2018) Aptamer-field-effect transistors overcome Debye length limitations for small-molecule sensing. Science (New York, NY) 362, 319–324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sestina JE (2016) ‘Planning a Successful Future.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Schillat M (2016) ‘Tourism in Antarctica: A Multidisciplinary View of New Activities Carried Out on the White Continent.’ (M Jensen, M Vereda, RA Sánchez, and R Roura, Eds.). (Springer International Publishing: Cham)
A chapter in an edited book
Manfrè L (2015) CT-/X-Ray-Guided Technique in Posterior Lumbar Spine Fusion. ‘Spinal Instability’. (Ed L Manfrè) pp. 61–80. (Springer International Publishing: Cham)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Primary Health.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Sheep Invade City After Shepherd Falls Asleep. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Organizational Transformation: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 2.0) (Supersedes GAO-03-584G). U.S. Government Printing Office, GAO-10-846G. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell S (2010) How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) Streisand’s ‘Encore’ Tops Album Chart. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blaxter 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Martin and Hosken 2003; Blaxter 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Hosken 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakatsuka et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Primary Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Prim. Health
ISSN (print)1448-7527
ISSN (online)1836-7399
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles