How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Primary Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Primary Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seewald JS (2003) Organic-inorganic interactions in petroleum-producing sedimentary basins. Nature 426, 327–333.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krushelnick K, Cowley S (2005) Physics. Reduced turbulence and new opportunities for fusion. Science (New York, NY) 309, 1502–1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayes D, Griffin GB, Engel GS (2014) Response to Comment on ‘Engineering coherence among excited states in synthetic heterodimer systems’. Science (New York, NY) 344, 1099.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakayama Y, Pauzauskie PJ, Radenovic A, Onorato RM, Saykally RJ, Liphardt J, Yang P (2007) Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe. Nature 447, 1098–1101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng KK (2009) ‘Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Cohen H, O’Brien P (Eds) (2012) ‘Disorders of Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Pregnancy: A Guide to Management.’ (Springer: London)
A chapter in an edited book
Tibon-Czopp S, Weiner IB (2016) The Rorschach Inkblot Method: Research. ‘Rorschach Assessment of Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Practice’. (Ed IB Weiner) Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development. pp. 65–95. (Springer: New York, NY)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Primary Health.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why We Need A Legal Definition Of Artificial Intelligence. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Highway Infrastructure: Federal-State Partnership Produces Benefits and Poses Oversight Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, GAO-12-474. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan GC (2015) Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J (2016) John Ellenby, Creator of Early Laptop, Dies at 75. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seewald 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Seewald 2003; Krushelnick and Cowley 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krushelnick and Cowley 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakayama et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Primary Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Prim. Health
ISSN (print)1448-7527
ISSN (online)1836-7399
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles