How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Primary Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Primary Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foster I (2006) 2020 computing: a two-way street to science’s future. Nature 440, 419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyman AA, Simons K (2012) Cell biology. Beyond oil and water--phase transitions in cells. Science (New York, NY) 337, 1047–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Millonig JH, Millen KJ, Hatten ME (2000) The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature 403, 764–769.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Touboul M, Kleine T, Bourdon B, Palme H, Wieler R (2007) Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from W isotopes in lunar metals. Nature 450, 1206–1209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ursone P (2015) ‘How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK)
An edited book
Kaźmierski TJ, Morawiec A (Eds) (2012) ‘System Specification and Design Languages: Selected Contributions from FDL 2010.’ (Springer: New York, NY)
A chapter in an edited book
Salomon D, Motta G (2010) Robust VL Codes. ‘Handbook of Data Compression’. (Ed G Motta) pp. 177–209. (Springer: London)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Primary Health.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Republican Bill Aims To ‘Terminate’ The Department Of Education. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA Procurement: Improving the Management of Delegated Contract Functions. U.S. Government Printing Office, NSIAD-92-75. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes UT (2014) Mental health services for foster youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) HBO Renews 3 Series. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Foster 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Foster 2006; Hyman and Simons 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hyman and Simons 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Touboul et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Primary Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Prim. Health
ISSN (print)1448-7527
ISSN (online)1836-7399
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles