How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Primary Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Primary Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stock JM (2006) Geochemistry. The Hawaiian-Emperor bend: older than expected. Science (New York, NY) 313, 1250–1251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Novas FE, Pol D (2005) New evidence on deinonychosaurian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature 433, 858–861.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sheffield J, Wood EF, Roderick ML (2012) Little change in global drought over the past 60 years. Nature 491, 435–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Becker D, Selbach M, Rollenhagen C, Ballmaier M, Meyer TF, Mann M, Bumann D (2006) Robust Salmonella metabolism limits possibilities for new antimicrobials. Nature 440, 303–307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott AW, Frobenius R (2008) ‘RF Measurements for Cellular Phones and Wireless Data Systems.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Kusuoka S, Maruyama T (Eds) (2010) ‘Advances in Mathematical Economics.’ (Springer Japan: Tokyo)
A chapter in an edited book
Dedova A, Petrucci L (2013) From Code to Coloured Petri Nets: Modelling Guidelines. ‘Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency VIII’. (Eds M Koutny, WMP van der Aalst, A Yakovlev) Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 71–88. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Primary Health.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) NASA Paid This Guy $18,000 To Lie In A Bed For 70 Days. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Must Act Quickly to Prevent Systems Failures. U.S. Government Printing Office, T-AIMD-98-63. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
David SZ (2016) A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Tough Times For Disciples Of Ayn Rand. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stock 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Novas and Pol 2005; Stock 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Novas and Pol 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Becker et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Primary Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Prim. Health
ISSN (print)1448-7527
ISSN (online)1836-7399
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles