How to format your references using the Australasian Plant Disease Notes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Plant Disease Notes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eichenbaum H (2010) Neuroscience. Dedicated to memory? Science 330:1331–1332
A journal article with 2 authors
Rawlins D, Pickering K (2001) Ancient chronology. Astronomical orientation of the pyramids. Nature 412:699–700
A journal article with 3 authors
Murphy GE, Leadbetter JR, Jensen GJ (2006) In situ structure of the complete Treponema primitia flagellar motor. Nature 442:1062–1064
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schaefer JM, Denton GH, Barrell DJA, et al (2006) Near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the last glacial maximum in mid-latitudes. Science 312:1510–1513

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kissell J (2009) Mac® Security Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Renz M, Shahabi C, Zhou X, Cheema MA (eds) (2015) Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 20th International Conference, DASFAA 2015, Hanoi, Vietnam, April 20-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Friederich U, Coca D, Billings S, Juusola M (2009) Data Modelling for Analysis of Adaptive Changes in Fly Photoreceptors. In: Leung CS, Lee M, Chan JH (eds) Neural Information Processing: 16th International Conference, ICONIP 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 34–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Plant Disease Notes.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) The Closest Hypervelocity Star Ever Seen. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Service and Auction Rules for the 38.6-40.0 GHz Frequency Band. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rangwala R (2005) The Role of the PDZ Protein, Erbin, in Schwann Cells. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2008) Eve Thompson and Richard Robinson. New York Times ST11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eichenbaum 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Rawlins and Pickering 2001; Eichenbaum 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rawlins and Pickering 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaefer et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Plant Disease Notes
AbbreviationAustralas. Plant Dis. Notes
ISSN (online)1833-928X
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

Other styles