How to format your references using the Australasian Plant Disease Notes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Plant Disease Notes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife C (2000) INFORMATION THEORY: “Ultimate PC” Would Be a Hot Little Number. Science 289:1447a–8a
A journal article with 2 authors
Small EM, Olson EN (2011) Pervasive roles of microRNAs in cardiovascular biology. Nature 469:336–342
A journal article with 3 authors
Ward AB, Sali A, Wilson IA (2013) Biochemistry. Integrative structural biology. Science 339:913–915
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lu T-P, Hsu Y-Y, Lai L-C, et al (2014) Identification of gene expression biomarkers for predicting radiation exposure. Sci Rep 4:6293

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thériault M, Rosiers FD (2011) Modeling Urban Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hofmann-Wellenhof B (2008) GNSS — Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and more. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Stoimenov N, Chakraborty S, Thiele L (2012) Interface-Based Design of Real-Time Systems. In: Chakraborty S, Eberspächer J (eds) Advances in Real-Time Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 83–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Plant Disease Notes.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Mysterious Tests Will Scramble GPS Signals On America’s West Coast This Month. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Airport Financing: Funding Sources for Airport Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhavsar KS (2017) Application of wavelet on quasi-periodic physiologic signals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Walsh MW (2014) Plan on Repaying Debt Is Presented to Detroit’s Creditors. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seife 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seife 2000; Small and Olson 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Small and Olson 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Plant Disease Notes
AbbreviationAustralas. Plant Dis. Notes
ISSN (online)1833-928X
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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