How to format your references using the Australasian Plant Disease Notes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Plant Disease Notes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Etzioni O (2011) Search needs a shake-up. Nature 476:25–26
A journal article with 2 authors
Morton JJL, Mølmer K (2015) Quantum information: Spin memories in for the long haul. Nature 517:153–154
A journal article with 3 authors
Parkinson GN, Lee MPH, Neidle S (2002) Crystal structure of parallel quadruplexes from human telomeric DNA. Nature 417:876–880
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tang K, Zhang Y, Yu M, et al (2013) Evaluation of a new high-throughput method for identifying quorum quenching bacteria. Sci Rep 3:2935

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berk J (2010) Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
McKeown R, Nolet V (eds) (2013) Schooling for Sustainable Development in Canada and the United States. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Villar Piqué G, Alarcón E (2011) 3-Level Buck Converter Analysis and Specific Components Models. In: Alarcón E (ed) CMOS Integrated Switching Power Converters: A Structured Design Approach. Springer, New York, NY, pp 133–170

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Plant Disease Notes.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Scientists Vote We Have Entered The Anthropocene Epoch, Earth’s Newest Geological Chapter. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Mass Transit: Challenges in Securing Transit Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson R (2010) Grounding theatricality in reality: The creation of the role of Suzie in “Current Nobody.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Supreme Court Weighs Maine’s Tobacco Law. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Etzioni 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Etzioni 2011; Morton and Mølmer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morton and Mølmer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Plant Disease Notes
AbbreviationAustralas. Plant Dis. Notes
ISSN (online)1833-928X
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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