How to format your references using the Atherosclerosis: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Atherosclerosis: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Wendell, Scientists and societies. Protecting the public investment, Nature. 427 (2004) 762.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.C. Taylor, M.J. Ryan, Interactions of multisensory components perceptually rescue túngara frog mating signals, Science. 341 (2013) 273–274.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.G. Lee, H.S. Park, H.S. Hwang, Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster, Science. 328 (2010) 334–336.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.F. Chen, C.W. Du, P. Yang, H.W. Zhang, M. Kwan, G.J. Zhang, The molecular and clinicopathologic characteristics of bilateral breast cancer, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.J.Y. Ho, M. Gibaldi, Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
H. Iba, Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering: Robust Techniques for Forecasting, Trading and Hedging, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Bravetti, D. Latella, M. Loreti, M. Massink, G. Zavattaro, Combining Timed Coordination Primitives and Probabilistic Tuple Spaces, in: C. Kaklamanis, F. Nielson (Eds.), Trustworthy Global Computing: 4th International Symposium, TGC 2008, Barcelona, Spain, November 3-4, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 52–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Atherosclerosis: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Universe’s Most Miraculous Molecule, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Procurement of ADP Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Macy, Underachievement in Gifted Students: Understanding Perceptions of Educational Experiences, Attitudes Toward School, and Teacher Training, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Hey, Archie! Want to Build An Empire?, New York Times. (2010) BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAtherosclerosis: X
ISSN (print)2590-1354

Other styles