How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (APJTM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joffre M. Comment on ‘Coherent control of retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin’. Science 2007;317(5837):453; author reply 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tuomisto H, Ruokolainen K. Comment on ‘Disentangling the drivers of β diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients’. Science 2012;335(6076):1573; author reply 1573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tria F, Pompei S, Loreto V. Dynamically correlated mutations drive human Influenza A evolution. Sci Rep 2013;3:2705.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shin J-W, Hammer NI, Diken EG, Johnson MA, Walters RS, Jaeger TD, et al. Infrared signature of structures associated with the H+(H2O)n (n = 6 to 27) clusters. Science 2004;304(5674):1137–1140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baudin P. Wireless Transceiver Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Skolnik NS, Albert RH (eds.). Essential Infectious Disease Topics for Primary Care. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Dharmadhikari AK, Mathur D. Propagation of Ultrashort Pulses in Condensed Media. In: Yamanouchi K, Giulietti A, Ledingham K, editors. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science: Volume V. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: 81–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. How Your Christmas Turkey Arrives Already Stuffed – With Antibiotics. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baldasaro RE. Person level analysis in latent growth curve models. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Packer G. A Historian in Camelot. New York Times. 2013;:BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Med.
ISSN (print)1995-7645
ISSN (online)2352-4146
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles