How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (APJTM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson WD. Tech.Sight. Analyzing biomolecular interactions. Science 2002;295(5562):2103–2105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scharlemann JPW, Laurance WF. Environmental science. How green are biofuels? Science 2008;319(5859):43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulligan CJ, Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM. Comment on ‘Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals’. Science 2006;314(5804):1390.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Coureux P-D, Wells AL, Ménétrey J, Yengo CM, Morris CA, Sweeney HL, et al. A structural state of the myosin V motor without bound nucleotide. Nature 2003;425(6956):419–423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe S. Frontier Road. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
Samarati P (ed.). Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXIX: 29th Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Working Conference, DBSec 2015, Fairfax, VA, USA, July 13-15, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Przelaskowski A. Computer-Aided Diagnosis: From Image Understanding to Integrated Assistance. In: Pietka E, Kawa J, editors. Information Technologies in Biomedicine. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: 44–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Top Ten Newly-Discovered Species. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Numbers: SSNs Are Widely Used by Government and Could Be Better Protected. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldaco R. Latinas attainment of higher education: What factors contribute to their success? 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A. Snow Brings Days of Tumult for Nursing Home Residents. New York Times. 2014;:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Med.
ISSN (print)1995-7645
ISSN (online)2352-4146
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles