How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (APJTD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schübeler D. Molecular biology. Epigenetic islands in a genetic ocean. Science 2012;338(6108):756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haug GH, Peterson LC. Obituary: Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006). Nature 2006;439(7079):928.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komarova NL, Levy DN, Wodarz D. Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs. Sci Rep 2013;3:2103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ridderinkhof KR, de Vlugt Y, Bramlage A, Spaan M, Elton M, Snel J, et al. Alcohol consumption impairs detection of performance errors in mediofrontal cortex. Science 2002;298(5601):2209–2211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald IW. Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Myint-U T. Linear Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers. Fourth Edition. Birkhäuser: Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Swaab DF. Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain and Male/Female Behaviour. In: Beets G, Schippers J, te Velde ER, editors. The Future of Motherhood in Western Societies: Late Fertility and its Consequences. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011: 33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brains Can Make Decisions While We Sleep – Here They Are In Action. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Public-Private Partnerships: Securing Potential Benefits and Protecting the Public Interest Could Result from More Rigorous Up-front Analysis. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolasa A. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Countries. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Notes From the Underground: New Yorkers Share Their Subway Stories. New York Times. 2002;:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Dis.
ISSN (print)2222-1808
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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