How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (APJTD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tobias JA. Biodiversity: Hidden impacts of logging. Nature 2015;523(7559):163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Loosdrecht MCM, Brdjanovic D. Water treatment. Anticipating the next century of wastewater treatment. Science 2014;344(6191):1452–1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohmann C, Myhr KL, Wong ROL. Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature 2002;418(6894):177–181.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bhunia SK, Saha A, Maity AR, Ray SC, Jana NR. Carbon nanoparticle-based fluorescent bioimaging probes. Sci Rep 2013;3:1473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansons AM, Davis H. Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders. Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
Dale C, Anderson T (eds.). Achieving Systems Safety: Proceedings of the Twentieth Safety-Critical Systems Symposium, Bristol, UK, 7-9th February 2012. Springer: London, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Capozza I. A dynamic game of technology diffusion under emissions trading: an experiment. In: Antes R, Hansjürgens B, Letmathe P, editors. Emissions Trading and Business. Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2006: 53–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. There Are Better Ways To Quantify How Big And Bad A Hurricane Is. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improved Management of Computer Resources Needed To Enhance Marine Corps’ Efficiency and Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baghaei Lakeh A. Approximate Analytical Solutions of a Generalized van der Pol Oscillator. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith M, Kovaleski SF. For Officers After a Shooting, Unseen ‘Grieving’. New York Times. 2017;:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Dis.
ISSN (print)2222-1808
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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