How to format your references using the Asian Journal of Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alley RB. Climate change. On thickening ice? Science. 2002;295(5554):451-452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karim SSA, Karim QA. AIDS research must link to local policy. Nature. 2010;463(7282):733-734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Séguin B, Singer PA, Daar AS. Science community: scientific diasporas. Science. 2006;312(5780):1602-1603.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang C, Yu S, Chen W, Sun C. Highly efficient light-trapping structure design inspired by natural evolution. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1025.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blanchet G, Dupouy B. Computer Architecture. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Erstad O, Kumpulainen K, Mäkitalo Å, Schrøder KC, Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt P, Jóhannsdóttir T, eds. Learning across Contexts in the Knowledge Society. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Sall M, Chandran N, Terzidou A, Lioutas CB, Polychroniadis EK. TEM Characterization of a Complex Twinning System in 3C–SiC. In: Polychroniadis EK, Oral AY, Ozer M, eds. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress: Proceedings of InterM, October 16-19, 2014. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:25-29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of Anesthesiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Find 108 Genetic Links To Schizophrenia. IFLScience. Published July 23, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amos AE. Perceptions of the persistent: Academic experiences of first generation community college students. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Billard M. Virtual Target Previews Fall. New York Times. August 19, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of Anesthesiology
ISSN (print)2468-824X

Other styles