How to format your references using the Asian Journal of Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyatt LA. IBI* series winner. Personal plants: making botany meaningful by experimentation. Science. 2012;337(6102):1620-1621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greene CH, Pershing AJ. Oceans. Climate drives sea change. Science. 2007;315(5815):1084-1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spiegelhalter D, Pearson M, Short I. Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science. 2011;333(6048):1393-1400.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Butov LV, Lai CW, Ivanov AL, Gossard AC, Chemla DS. Towards Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in potential traps. Nature. 2002;417(6884):47-52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kieser J, Taylor M, Carr D. Forensic Biomechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Lee S-G, Peng Z, Zhou X, Moon Y-S, Unland R, Yoo J, eds. Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 17th International Conference, DASFAA 2012, Busan, South Korea, April 15-19, 2012, Proceedings, Part I. Vol 7238. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Karasalo I, Skogqvist P. Acoustic models for scattering. In: Caiti A, ed. Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-Toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project. Springer Praxis Books. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:25-30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of Anesthesiology.

Blog post
Hale T. Twenty Cognitive Biases That Could Be Helping You Make Bad Decisions. IFLScience. Published October 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Slot-Controlled Airports: FAA’s Rules Could Be Improved to Enhance Competition and Use of Available Capacity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford V. Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McWHORTER J. Patience Is a (Sexual) Virtue. New York Times. February 27, 2017:D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of Anesthesiology
ISSN (print)2468-824X

Other styles