How to format your references using the Asian Journal of Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx CJ. Microbiology. Getting in touch with your friends. Science. 2009;324(5931):1150-1151.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turtle EP, Pierazzo E. Thickness of a Europan ice shell from impact crater simulations. Science. 2001;294(5545):1326-1328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hua W, Chung J, Gelles J. Distinguishing inchworm and hand-over-hand processive kinesin movement by neck rotation measurements. Science. 2002;295(5556):844-848.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Colombe Y, Steinmetz T, Dubois G, Linke F, Hunger D, Reichel J. Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip. Nature. 2007;450(7167):272-276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xiu L. Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Mueller R. Clinical Trials in Rheumatology. 2nd ed. 2013. (von Kempis J, ed.). London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Humphrey LR. Model Checking for Verification in UAV Cooperative Control Applications. In: Fahroo F, Wang LY, Yin G, eds. Recent Advances in Research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:69-117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of Anesthesiology.

Blog post
Hale T. A Rare European Bison Has Been Found Decapitated On A Reserve. IFLScience. Published September 21, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Issues in Providing Cable and Satellite Television Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matthews LK. The impact of trait displaced aggression and social support on cardiovascular reactivity. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Donated Slides From the Met Get a Second Life, and Viewing. New York Times. April 16, 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of Anesthesiology
ISSN (print)2468-824X

Other styles