How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Buckingham S. Seeing is believing. Nature. 2003;425(6954):211.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Stanley S, Bloxham J. Convective-region geometry as the cause of Uranus’ and Neptune’s unusual magnetic fields. Nature. 2004;428(6979):151-153.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lind G, Linsmeier CE, Schouenborg J. The density difference between tissue and neural probes is a key factor for glial scarring. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2942.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Steinhart M, Wendorff JH, Greiner A, et al. Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates. Science. 2002;296(5575):1997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
AIChE technical manual. Dow’s Chemical Exposure Index Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
1.
Blottner D. The NeuroMuscular System: From Earth to Space Life Science: Neuromuscular Cell Signalling in Disuse and Exercise. (Salanova M, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Karemore A, Ramalingam D, Yadav G, Subramanian G, Sen R. Photobioreactors for Improved Algal Biomass Production: Analysis and Design Considerations. In: Das D, ed. Algal Biorefinery: An Integrated Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:103-124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. NASA’s HiRISE Camera Shows The Frosty Valleys Of Mars. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/nasas-hirise-camera-shows-frosty-plains-mars/. Published August 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Privacy Data: The Data Encryption Standard Provides Valuable Protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nelson PT. Sound as a gateway to a personal relationship with nature. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Grynbaum MM. Washington Reality Show Stripped of Its Protagonist. New York Times. July 21, 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology
AbbreviationAsia Pac. J. Sports Med. Arthrosc. Rehabil. Technol.
ISSN (print)2214-6873
Scope

Other styles