How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thorne KS. Classical black holes: the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. Science. 2012;337(6094):536-538.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang YC, Gao J. Strain-induced photoconductivity in thin films of Co doped amorphous carbon. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6738.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinrichs K-U, Hmelo LR, Sylva SP. Molecular fossil record of elevated methane levels in late Pleistocene coastal waters. Science. 2003;299(5610):1214-1217.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ho CJH, Balasundaram G, Driessen W, et al. Multifunctional photosensitizer-based contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noordenbos G. Recovery from Eating Disorders. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Giordan G, Swatos WH Jr, eds. Religion, Spirituality and Everyday Practice. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Muraoka T, Watanabe Y, Kanosue K. Intra- and Inter-person Coordinated Movements of Fingers and Toes. In: Kanosue K, Nagami T, Tsuchiya J, eds. Sports Performance. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015:37-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology.

Blog post
Fang J. Why Do Dogs Like To Smell Butts So Much? IFLScience. Published July 29, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Long-Term Viability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rossi G. Anesthesiology, geriatric surgery, and the risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G. On the Town With a Fleet Week Newbie. New York Times. June 4, 2016:ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology
AbbreviationAsia Pac. J. Sports Med. Arthrosc. Rehabil. Technol.
ISSN (print)2214-6873

Other styles