How to format your references using the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno, Ichiko. 2006. “Stuck in the Middle.” Nature 442 (7100): 237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panchanathan, Karthik, and Robert Boyd. 2004. “Indirect Reciprocity Can Stabilize Cooperation without the Second-Order Free Rider Problem.” Nature 432 (7016): 499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parry, Martin, Jason Lowe, and Clair Hanson. 2009. “Overshoot, Adapt and Recover.” Nature 458 (7242): 1102–1103.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sui, Pengfei, Darin L. Wiesner, Jinhao Xu, Yan Zhang, Jinwoo Lee, Steven Van Dyken, Amber Lashua, et al. 2018. “Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells Amplify Allergic Asthma Responses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 360 (6393).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, Marvin K., Dennis Lee, Warren L. Martin, Haiping Tsou, and Tsun-Yee Yan. 2005. Bandwidth-Efficient Digital Modulation with Application to Deep Space Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nicolaidis, Michael, ed. 2011. Soft Errors in Modern Electronic Systems. Vol. 41. Frontiers in Electronic Testing. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
vanVliet, Petra C. J., and Paul F. Hendrix. 2004. “Role of Fauna in Soil Physical Processes.” In Soil Biological Fertility: A Key to Sustainable Land Use in Agriculture, edited by Lynette K. Abbott and Daniel V. Murphy, 61–80. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Iguanas Have Bird-Like Lungs.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. National Airspace System: Observations on the Wide Area Augmentation System. T-RCED-98-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowden, Mia Rochelle. 2008. “Genesis of End-to-End Chromosome Fusions.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, John. 2017. “Turning His Back on Football.” New York Times, August 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hochstrasser 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Moran 2014; Marshall 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Panchanathan and Boyd 2004)
  • Three authors: (Parry, Lowe, and Hanson 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Deng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
AbbreviationJ. Ethn. Migr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-183X
ISSN (online)1469-9451
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Other styles