How to format your references using the Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korgel BA. Materials science. Self-assembled nanocoils. Science. 2004;303:1308–1309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz B, Frommer WB. Plant biology. A plant ABC transporter takes the lotus seat. Science. 2004;306:622–625.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida M-A, Yura K, Ogura A. Cephalopod eye evolution was modulated by the acquisition of Pax-6 splicing variants. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:4256.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Parker HG, Kim LV, Sutter NB, Carlson S, Lorentzen TD, Malek TB, et al. Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science. 2004;304:1160–1164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banerjee S, Lawrence V. Managing Dementia in a Multicultural Society. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
D’Hondt T, editor. ECOOP 2010 – Object-Oriented Programming: 24th European Conference, Maribor, Slovenia, June 21-25, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Hentrich C. Synchronization Patterns for Process-Driven and Service-Oriented Architectures. In: Noble J, Johnson R, editors. Transactions on Pattern Languages of Programming I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 103–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. A Teacher Uses Star Trek For Difficult Conversations On Race And Gender [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moretto L. Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between Decision-Driven Scenarios and Decision Confidence in High-Velocity Environments. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Predicting the Staying Power of ‘The Jungle Book.’ New York Times. 2016;C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology
ISSN (print)0270-9139
ISSN (online)1527-3350

Other styles