How to format your references using the Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith N. A blast wave from the 1843 eruption of eta Carinae. Nature. 2008;455:201–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belkaid Y, Grainger J. Immunology. Mucus coat, a dress code for tolerance. Science. 2013;342:432–433.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sparks RSJ, Biggs J, Neuberg JW. Geophysics. Monitoring volcanoes. Science. 2012;335:1310–1311.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bao Z, Yuan X, Duan S, Dong X. Clinical implication of changes in serum adiponectin in patients with hepatogenic diabetes. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLaughlin TA. Nonprofit Mergers and Alliances. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Holz T, Bos H, editors. Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 8th International Conference; DIMVA 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 7-8, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Giga M-H, Giga Y, Saal J. Compactness Theorems. In: Giga Y, Saal J, editors. Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations: Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions and Self-Similar Solutions. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2010. p. 181–188.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology.

Blog post
Davis J. 120 Million-Year-Old Sea Turtle Found [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prima MB. Waiting for Lefty: Adversity and the American Dream. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Viera M. Giants’ Manning Needs 12 Stitches After a Collision. New York Times. 2010;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology
ISSN (print)0270-9139
ISSN (online)1527-3350

Other styles